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20.09.2018

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    Why the sudden change and what does this mean for the industry? The story starts with a 6-year-old girl living with epilepsy. Until seeing this little girl struggling with her illness, Gene Simmons had held a fairly strong anti-drug line.

    Despite recent Canadian law prohibiting celebrity endorsements for cannabis companies, British Columbia-based Invictus M. Besides producing medicinal effects and a nice feeling of getting high, legal cannabis produces economic benefits, too. According to a recent study published by the Journal of Contemporary Economic Policy, housing prices in Denver, Colorado increased by an average of 7. While this development is certainly encouraging, other factors can obviously influence property values, as well, leading researchers to indicate that their findings might be a tad premature.

    Numerous coffeehouses have closed in Amsterdam in recent years due to new laws, most notably new regulations in Amsterdam which prohibit coffeehouses from operating with meters of a school.

    In Amsterdam, this is very understandable, as many tourists visit the city in order to patronize coffeeshops. When it comes to housing prices in American cities, however, these results might be a bit more surprising. While people who regularly buy cannabis at a dispensary might agree to pay a bit more to be close to one, a 3 percent increase seems a bit high.

    And speaking of legislation, where does our current surgeon general stand on marijuana legalization? An anesthesiologist and former Indiana state health commissioner, current U. Jerome Adams took office in September of As we have discussed previously, in classifying marijuana under Schedule 1, not only has the government declared pot to have no health benefits, but it also says the drug has a higher potential for abuse than drugs like cocaine, methamphetamines, and Vicodin.

    While cannabis remains illegal on a federal level, it turns out that more and more banks are offering services to cannabis companies. According to Marjiuana Moment, newly released federal data shows that the number of banking institutions that are actively servicing accounts for marijuana businesses has grown by nearly 20 percent since the beginning of In November of , the U.

    Actually, these banks and credit unions filed suspicious activity reports after noticing that one of their clients might be selling cannabis or infused products, for example , instead of the products or services they declared when creating their bank accounts.

    Basically, this means that these financial institutions are breaking the law involuntarily. In , the Obama Administration attempted to give banks some freedom to provide services to cannabis businesses. In June , an amendment attached to a federal finance bill was shut down. Again, this was bad news for banks wanting to do business with marijuana companies.

    For now, it seems like nothing will change until cannabis is no longer a Schedule I drug. Of course, everyone working in the cannabis industry would love to see banks provide services legally. Handling large amounts of cash causes dispensaries and their employees to become targets, and allowing banks to provide services to cannabis-related businesses could actually increase the safety of everyone involved.

    If regulations are every changed, this will undoubtedly be a factor. While the growth of — and increasing public support for — legal marijuana is clear, the rules associated with marketing legal weed remain cloudy. Cultivating cannabis has become a booming business since the advent of its legalization in several states across the nation.

    While only 10 states plus the District of Columbia have legalized cannabis for recreational use, 33 states now allow the sale and use of cannabis for medicinal purposes. As the cannabis legalization wave continues to swell over the United States, its use remains illegal at the federal level, complicating how legitimate cannabis businesses do their banking, file their taxes, and promote their products.

    In addition, state laws regulating how cultivators and dispensaries may advertise their services vary widely, thickening the legal quagmire. Though all members of the canna-business benefit from consulting with qualified legal counsel, there are some guidelines businesses can follow to get the word out while still steering clear of penalties.

    The Importance of Advertising You could be sitting on the cure for cancer, but if no one knows you have it, you won't make a dime. Advertising and marketing remain a popular deduction come tax time for good reason. Marketing your brand is simply part of the cost of doing business. Advertising builds brand awareness, and consumers are more likely to purchase from a company they trust.

    The importance of name recognition cannot be overstated. To understand just how powerful building brand recognition truly is, consider the last time you cleaned out your ears. Did you call the little cardboard stick with cotton on either end a cotton swab or a Q-tip?

    Some brands become so ubiquitous the names of their products become part of the common lexicon, which is every marketer's dream come true.

    However, many of these traditional advertising avenues create legal quagmires for those in the cannabis industry. Certain kinds of ads can only be shown during specific hours to avoid the risk of children viewing them. Because most television programming crosses state lines, those in the cannabis industry run the risk of prosecution should their ads be viewed in a state where it remains illegal.

    In addition, because cannabis remains illegal at the federal level, the United States Postal Service prohibits the mailing of cannabis-related advertisements. Advertising becomes even murkier when state laws come into play. For example, in California, cannabis is legal for both recreational and medical purposes, but advertisements such as billboards may only be placed in areas where at least Anywhere that has a school or day care nearby remains out of reach to cannabis marketers.

    Finally, the largest social media outlets, Facebook and Google, both have instituted a policy prohibiting the advertising of cannabis on their platforms. While these are private entities with the rights to make their own rules, due to the potential risk of liability, they will likely not change their advertising policies until and unless cannabis becomes legal at the federal level. Even advertising in local newspapers that don't regularly cross state lines is considered too risky by many due to the risk of federal prosecution for drug trafficking.

    Effective Marketing for Cannabis Entrepreneurs With so many restrictions on where they may advertise, how can those in the canna-business get their names out there? Doing so takes a bit of extra creativity. Smart marketers know it costs far less to keep repeat customers than it is to attract new ones. Repeat customers also help build brand-name recognition because they often recommend businesses they love to their friends and family. Nothing creates more trust among potential new customers than a recommendation from someone they personally trust.

    Medical cannabis businesses have an advantage here: Whenever a new patient registers at a dispensary, they are often asked to provide a preferred contact method consisting of email, text, or phone. Cannabis business owners can then use those specific contact methods to blast announcements of special deals and offers directly to their patients.

    To attract new customers, businesses can extend "bring a friend" special deals right to the populace they already serve. Cannabis information sites allow the placement of website banners and ads that catch the eye of those interested in medical cannabis. For a modest fee, some websites will even create an entire marketing campaign including sending regular emails to consumers. This win-win solution allows cultivators and dispensaries to focus on creating better strains and products instead of spending their limited time running their own email and text campaigns.

    The federal status of cannabis coupled with conflicting state laws creates challenges for those in the cannabis marketing community. However, with a bit of innovation, it is possible to build engaging advertisement campaigns that do not run afoul of the law.

    This article was contributed by Kacey Bradley. State-funded universities follow state law — except when it comes to cannabis. This means real consequences for students. It need not be so. Elsewhere, medical marijuana won in nearby Missouri and in Mormon-controlled, deep-red Utah. As the experience of every other state to embark on the marijuana legalization path shows, it will be quite a while before cannabis is available in Michigan stores to those of us without a medical-marijuana recommendation, at least; Detroit is replete with medical cannabis dispensaries and looks likely to remain so.

    But if the administrators at state-funded Michigan State University have anything to do with it, nothing will change at all — not now, and not in the future. Marijuana legalization does not apply on campus. Defying Davies carries severe consequences: He warned of outright dismissal from school should they defy his will by exercising newfound rights under state law. How can they do this? The short answer is because they can — and everyone else is doing it.

    As Inside Higher Ed reported, college campuses in Colorado, California, Oregon, Maine, Massachusetts, and everywhere else marijuana has been legalized have declared themselves marijuana legalization-free zones. The slightly longer answer is that universities receive federal funding and thus have to follow federal law, under federal drug-free acts cited by MSU.

    These are the same laws that employers often cite when justifying failing to hire or outright firing employees or potential hires for using cannabis. Police departments are a good example.

    Local police departments apply for and receive federal funding in the form of grants, and often take advantage of federal money to pay for equipment. And local police departments enforce… local law, which — in states like California, Colorado, and now Michigan — says that marijuana is legal for adults 21 and over. To date, not a single police department has reported losing federal funding because it did what it is chartered to do — that is, follow state law.

    Airports may provide a clearer example for universities to follow, should they so choose. Denver International Airport has declared itself a marijuana-free zone. Other airports have not — and in either case, if a passenger boarding a flight is found to have any quantity of marijuana, regular procedure for Transportation Security Administration officials is to call local law enforcement.

    Not the feds, not the military, not the Space Force. Why are colleges different? Like airports, they are state-chartered institutions, funded primarily by a state. Someone caught breaking the law on a college campus may be subject to arrest by either campus or local police—in either case, law enforcement chartered by a state entity or government.

    If arrested, they will be tried in state court. If convicted of a serious enough offense, they will go to a state prison. See the pattern here? Of course you do. So do the colleges, which is why they are choosing to fall back on federal law to justify their retrograde and anachronistic policies — which are in turn causing students real harm. But they can punish a student with consequences that are.

    They can eject them from campus housing. They can take away their student loans, their work-study stipend — and they can kick them out of school. And that — for reasons that are spurious and utterly dishonest — is something that colleges appear totally fine with. It is possible that these hard-line stances are merely preemptive cover-your-ass moves university presidents feel they need to take to keep the feds away.

    That may be so. In which case, this is merely a demonstration of moral cowardice rather than draconian evil. Neither is much to be proud of. Is the next center of marijuana production in California former flower farms in Monterrey County, is it hoop-houses enjoying ocean breezes in Santa Barbara — or is it neither? Prior to marijuana legalization, one line of frequently repeated conventional wisdom in certain cannabis circles was that once prohibition ended, The End Times would soon follow.

    In California, that means the land in least demand, which means the desert or the agricultural communities of the Central Valley, where cannabis would become a complement to the oceans of pistachios, almonds, stone-fruits, and other commodities produced by industrial agriculture. It was a compelling thesis, and there was some credible evidence — wholesale marijuana prices were indeed dropping and some of those farms were going out of business, and some old growers who could still make the nut financially were left out on technicalities, after they found that their unconventional arrangements disqualified them for state permits — but these arguments suffered from a few flaws.

    First, beside the fact that such an enterprise was completely impractical, there was never any credible evidence that tobacco companies, Soros, Monsanto, or any combination of the three were plotting a land-grab of remote, hard-to-access, harder-to-develop-into-industrial agriculture former timber land in Trinity County.

    Second, the thing about cheap land in California is that it is cheap for a reason. At one point, according to one estimate, there were roughly 55, marijuana cultivators of various sizes in the Emerald Triangle, meaning if Santa Barbara wants to be the next best home for cannabis cultivation, there needs to be an extended period of growth, and proof that it can be sustained.

    The truth is that everybody is still figuring out exactly what will work — and nobody can say with certainty what that will be. Which is to say it may matter very much exactly where a cannabis flower is grown, in the same way that it matters extremely to the market and to the palette if a grape comes from Napa County, or just a few hillsides away in Solano County.

    And there are considerations far more earthly to consider. It could also be that the impractical Central Valley could become lucrative if local governments make it so. That works in most agricultural industries, but only so far.

    Wine is an object lesson yet again. Cannabis may not be quite as picky — especially with indoor growing — but indoor growing is costly, and the cannabis plant is a more fickle mistress than some growers realize. It has yet to be proven beyond doubt that massive, mold, and pest-resistance high-quality cannabis can be grown reliably at scale. Like a snow globe just snatched from the shelf and given a furious shake, the image of large-scale marijuana farming is hazy and unclear and has yet to coalesce and to settle.

    Inside the Mormon Medical Marijuana Caravan. Harris is a Las Vegas-based herbalist, medical cannabis advocate, mother of nine, and lifelong member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. She discovered cannabis through her work as an herbalist and has dedicated much of the last four years to educating the conservative Mormon community about it. Utah patients have continually found her through Church networks and made their way unsolicited to Harris seeking help and guidance.

    Meanwhile, legislators in Utah are working diligently and quickly to undo a voter-backed medical cannabis ballot initiative that passed earlier this month. Harris understands the hesitancy in the community, she herself was completely anti-cannabis until she started to learn more about it and how it became illegal in the first place. In , she advocated for medical cannabis at the state capital in Salt Lake City with patients who had caravanned to her home in Nevada.

    She wants them to take into account all the suffering Utahns currently smuggling or using on trips to nearby states to craft a workable policy. For a Latter-day Saint that is huge, that is a big deal, it is part of who we are — believing that we obey the laws of the land.

    It is disturbing to watch this. In states where medical cannabis is legal, many LDS patients are using cannabis with the blessings of their bishops or other Church leaders. Let them get out of pain! That is the thing, no one has died from it and teen use has gone down. After a multi-year struggle, advocates succeeded in putting medical cannabis on the midterm ballot in Utah, where it passed despite well-funded opposition, including from the Church itself.

    Now the lame duck Utah legislature plans to replace the medical cannabis bill voters approved, Proposition 2, in a special session with a legislative bill that will restrict access and potentially be non-functioning. Lawsuits are already pending. Patients in Utah are demanding a program in line with the nearby states they are currently smuggling from. As an herbalist, Harris believes cannabis should be left to the realm of herbalism not pharmaceutical medicine.

    Harris has been following the negotiations and how they have been influenced by big business and is worried the new law will do nothing to stem the tide of patients being sent to her door for legal guidance in Nevada. Raw flower would be sold in blister packs. Further, because of the nature and unaccounted for costs of the state-run central fill pharmacy proposed under the legislation, the program may be non-functional by the deadline.

    Referring to an analysis done by Americans for Safe Access of the first draft of the replacement legislation that determined the program would be non-functional, these groups have advocated heavily against it. More concessions were made to the financially incentivized opposition to safe access. Utah is moving forward with cannabis policy and should create meaningful legislation rather than public messaging stunts. This is wrong to do to people who are clearly suffering.

    It's an ugly situation — ugly because because we can't help these suffering Saints up in Utah. We tried to change the law so now the only choice for relief is to break the law and risk losing there Church memberships," Harris concluded.

    While Asia is probably not the first place you think of when you think of marijuana legalization — and with good reason — things might be starting to change. Some Asian countries have a reputation for handing out severe punishments — ranging from fines to prison times to the death penalty — for the consumption of possession of weed.

    Despite that strict history, some Asian countries are starting to consider varying levels of legalization. Newsweek recently took a look at the progress toward legalization across Asia. Legalization is still a long way away, but this is an important step, nonetheless.

    Ministers in the nation are also talking about decriminalizing medical marijuana. The country might also start exporting medical marijuana. For now, only medical marijuana is considered for legalization in some countries. Recreational use seems out of the question. Until something changes, laws will remain very strict and high sentences will continued to be handed out. According to a reminder tweeted out by the Canadian government, custom officers in Singapore, for example, can request a drug test as soon as you enter the country.

    Earlier this year, we told you that public support for legal weed had not reached its peak. And we were right. According to a new poll released by Gallup, public support for marijuana legalization has reached yet another high.

    This marks the third year in a row that public support has hit a new record. This age group has seen the biggest increase in support in the last few years.

    Public support has increased rapidly in the last few years. At the same time, many states have legalized the recreational use of marijuana. This is likely not a coincidence. But a large group of supporters could be enough to sway lawmakers to propose a ballot. In , for example, public support was lower in the South and Midwest than in the East and West.

    In the South, the number was only one percentage point higher. This increase could continue the streak of good news for the industry, leading lawmakers in the Midwest and South to rethink their stance on legalization — as well as efforts by cannabis companies to push their expansion efforts towards other parts of the U.

    Stay tuned to the Sugar Leaf for updates. The Inexact Science of Cannabis and Pregnancy. While little scientific research exists about cannabis' effects on pregnancy, breastfeeding, and babies, one thing is certain: There is plenty of conjecture about cannabis use during pregnancy but very little fact. Despite women using cannabis for millennia during menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding, doctors and government officials have become increasingly wary of the topic. Some cite flawed studies to prove it is dangerous to the development and growth of offspring, but from a truly scientific point of view, medical professionals have very little knowledge on how cannabis use during this critical time affects real human babies.

    Either way, more and more women are doing it. One doctor has at least set out to understand what can be gleaned from the studies and to highlight the flaws in research available to medical professionals on the topic. Borgelt also surveyed how dispensaries responded to calls from pregnant mothers and found major flaws in both the response from the research and medical community as well as the cannabis industry.

    She says she decided to embark on these studies with the University of Denver because she identified the major gap between medical knowledge and patient practice. One day during a consultation with a pregnant mother and medical resident she says the question of whether it was safe to consume cannabis during pregnancy and breastfeeding clearly highlighted the need for the work. She also notes a major flaw in the research; almost all of it refers specifically to the cannabinoid THC, leaving yet another gap in the study on CBD, other cannabinoids, and whole plant cannabis.

    As in most knowledge gaps in cannabis, there is also a large gap between medical research and the practice of how humans actually interact with cannabis and its chemical constituents.

    Despite what the medical profession has to say on the topic, 15 to 28 percent of pregnant and breastfeeding mothers in and out of legal states are using cannabis. With so much uncertainty, why are they risking it?

    CB1 receptors are receptors in the nervous system that interact with cannabis and endogenous cannabinoids produced by the human body. The higher presence of receptors means the effects of cannabinoids would be more potent on a developing fetus or child than an adult. Borgelt says there is a potential that because THC could disrupt and interfere with proper cell signaling during the development of these neurotransmitter systems there could be an effect on fetal development.

    However, there is still no definitive current research that could prove or disprove this. Borgelt says this speaks to the types of trials conducted and their limitations and points out that a lack of conclusive evidence is positive.

    But she says the literature does point, but not prove, to the possibility that cannabis could affect mental development, which would not become apparent until adolescent and teenage years, noting the human brain does not stop developing until the age of Borgelt agreed with Dr. As for the effects of cannabis use during breastfeeding, Dr.

    Borgelt acknowledges even less is known with the available studies. While these natural cannabinoids in breastmilk are safe, Dr. Borgelt warns that very little is known about phytocannabinoids in breast milk. What we can say is THC readily passes into the breastmilk and there are numerous studies to confirm that. When I have patients that ask about that, I will fully acknowledge our body makes its own endocannabinoids, but the exogenous are far more potent and last longer on receptor sites than what our body does normally which can influence the way the cell functions and develops.

    One of the primary reasons women use cannabis in pregnancy is for immediate relief of nausea. Women who are more comfortable with medical use of cannabis are more likely to view cannabis use as safer than pharmaceutical drugs that could be prescribed to women in pregnancy.

    There is a historical precedent for cannabis use in pregnancy. Cannabis has been used by midwives and herbalists to treat pain during menstruation and child birth and pain, nausea, anxiety, and insomnia in pregnant women for millennia. American and English doctors as late as the 19th century would recommend cannabis to mothers to induce and hasten childbirth. Although there are thousands of years of human experience with cannabis use during reproduction, very little formal study can point to any absolutes about effects.

    Melanie Dreher, currently the Dean of the Rush University Medical Center in Chicago and previously the Dean of Nursing at the University of Iowa College of Nursing, conducted a series of studies that are considered the most thorough studies of cannabis use in pregnant and breastfeeding mothers. She followed mothers in rural Jamaica already regularly using real cannabis during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and the development of their children over time.

    The neonates of heavy-marijuana-using mothers had better scores on autonomic stability, quality of alertness, irritability, and self-regulation and were judged to be more rewarding for caregivers. Real longitudinal studies that account for a host of confounding factors like other substance use, nutrition, genetic conditions, wellness and socioeconomic status are necessary to prove if there are negative side effects to development or growth of human offspring. While Borgelt encourages doctors to err on the side of caution, she acknowledges these flaws in research and suggests doctors keep an open mind so that doctors can get honest dialogue with their patients.

    The Birth of the Marijuana Megastore? While Cannabis is legal in Las Vegas, finding a place to use it is another story. Consuming weed in a public place or car is illegal, as is smoking it in your hotel, unless you have the explicit permission of the owner — which none have reportedly granted as of the time of this writing. The only option for using pot in Las Vegas is knowing — or finding someone — who will let you smoke your weed or eat your edibles on their private property.

    But while finding a place in Vegas to take a hit can be a bit of a drag, shopping for weed there is not. The city is now home to Planet 13, a new dispensary that sells flowers, edibles, and concentrates. Planet 13 is just like any other dispensary in the country except that it is absolutely enormous. When all phases are completed, the mega-store will total , square feet — more than enough to handle thousands of customers daily. The Next Big Thing? The LED lights, outdoor water feature, interactive floor, and other experiences are, of course, perfect for Las Vegas, but would likely be a little much for smaller cities or towns.

    But, hey, next time you're in Vegas, be sure to check out Planet And we wish you best of luck in trying to find a place to enjoy your stash once you do. The sad case of Patrick Beadle, the Portland, Oregon resident sentenced to eight years in prison for driving through Mississippi with medical marijuana he obtained legally, illustrates how far most places have to go on cannabis.

    Talley is a year-old barber. In through the open portal swarmed four SWAT officers in full tactical gear, fingers on the trigger of their assault weapons, the weapons pointed square at Talley. They also found plastic bags and three digital scales, though Talley claimed to own only one, and it was broken. Talley was nonetheless put in handcuffs and taken to county jail on suspicion of committing a misdemeanor — possession of marijuana.

    To defense attorneys and retired law enforcement, they are much worse. They are violations of the Fourth Amendment that also jeopardize the health and safety of the public. And yet, they have happened dozens and dozens of times, to dozens and dozens of other people like Talley.

    In eight others, they found only marijuana despite obtaining a search warrant for harder drugs. The city is 42 percent black and 46 percent white.

    Sometimes, the occupants of the raided homes are evicted, or charged by their landlords for the damage caused by police. And then they do it again — and again and again.

    Another individual, a registered legal gun owner, had his weapon seized, was charged for it, and was evicted from his apartment. The problem — for police — is that they also appeared to have lied. We know that is all untrue, because Talley set up a video security system outside his apartment following a few thefts which were never solved by police. And that video footage contradicts the account to which police swore in their affidavit signed off by a judge. To date, that has not resulted in any punishment for the police or compensation for Talley, who waged a one-man campaign for many months, obtaining public records and using social media to spread the news of his case.

    How many people like Talley are set up without the exculpatory power of a home security system? In how many other cities is there a SWAT team happy to stage raids suitable for cartel kingpins for a few scraps of weed? The answers are obvious and depressing, and illustrate the broader truth: Dispensaries have always targeted men.

    If they want to beat the competition, however, they need to market to women, too. But with an increasing number of states legalizing the recreational use of marijuana — and public support for legalization continuing to rise — a longtime truth has become more widely recognized: Women like weed, too. While everyone is different — and some women likely smoke more weed than the average man — there are some generally recognized differences between male and female pot consumption.

    Men, for example, typically prefer high-potency weed, which allows them to get high quickly, while women often want to be more discreet — especially when they feel like they could be judged by others for using weed. As a result, women are more likely to be interested in products like lotions with CBD, low-THC buds, edibles, and vape pens. Not surprisingly, marijuana-related businesses have noticed these differences, with weed marketing strategies looking more and more like those of beauty products.

    By appealing more directly to women, dispensaries will likely not only increase their bottom lines, but they could also be playing a significant part in the normalization of weed.

    Over time, women picking up kids from play dates will feel as comfortable talking to each other about their favorite weed-infused products as they will talking about the weather.

    Over the years, researchers have discovered the power of marijuana to help people suffering from myriad health conditions. The symptoms of this disease can be very incapacitating for patients, sometimes stopping them from holding down jobs or having a social life — or both.

    According to a new study, however, cannabis could offer relief to patients dealing with this frustrating condition. Some were given cannabis oil, others a placebo. Marijuana has been shown to reduce the number of epileptic episodes — especially among children. It can also be used to reduce pain, which is appealing for multiple sclerosis or arthritis patients. It can also relieve nausea in chemotherapy patients. While there are plenty of weird places to grow weed, outer space now tops our list.

    Cannabis and hemp cultivators Atalo Holdings and Anavii Market — also based in Kentucky — decided to partner with Space Tengo to send some ganja plants to a galaxy far, far away. The microwave-sized boxes are actually clean room laboratories that will be used by ISS scientists to grow and observe the plants.

    So, what can we learn from weed grown in outer space? Growing weed in a low-gravity environment sounds like fun, but is it useful? According to pharmacy professor Joe Chappell of the University of Kentucky, it is. The goal is to see how the plant reacts to this low-gravity environment, and how that could be useful for humankind. England's legalization of medical marijuana has been a predictable process, with at least one minor-sounding — yet very significant — deviation.

    On November 1, medical cannabis becomes legal in the United Kingdom. This is a technically true statement. There will be no flood of pain patients, cancer sufferers, and everyone else for whom medical marijuana can bring relief to dispensaries and clinics.

    Exactly what those products will be, when they will become available, for whom and how easily — and how expensive — all remains to be seen. All those very important details will be hammered out over the next year, with exact answers to be determined. It will also sound familiar in Canada and Australia, two former British Commonwealth countries that have also moved more quickly.

    But there is at least one minor-sounding yet very significant deviation from this otherwise predictable script. All those entrepreneurs, the founders and the funders, want to be seated at the literal and metaphorical table, when members of the government and Parliament sit down with stakeholders and figure out how to get cannabis to the public.

    There is a desire to make sure that patients get in first before the industry. At one-third the population of the United Kingdom, Florida is nonetheless an enormous market for cannabis, with an aging population that includes a significant number of military veterans. There, medical marijuana was approved by voters, but then dictated by lawmakers in consultation with health-department officials.

    It should not go unsaid that those health officials work for Gov. Rick Scott, himself a healthcare-industrial complex tycoon. A ban on marijuana that could be smoked. A ban on home cultivation, forcing patients to go to capitalized companies for access to a plant. So few licensed dispensaries and cultivators that it equated to a state-sanctioned monopoly.

    A byzantine permitting process that gave preferential treatment to farms that had once grown citrus fruits. Some of these restrictions have been overturned by the courts, but the fact that the courts had to be involved at all should be proof enough that the laws were imperfect and unworkable. It should surprise nobody that the imperfections were put there by someone other than the patients for whom the laws were intended. They would do so if they listened to pain doctors in charge of prescribing pharmaceutical alternatives to cannabis, which — according to the literature, is effective for pain.

    It would be bad. While Germany has made some progress as far as cannabis legalization is concerned, the number of Germans who can legally obtain the drug is rather limited, as are the chances that that number will increase any time soon.

    Berlin, for example, is known for its party scene. Getting — or getting away with — marijuana may be technically possible in Germany, but growing it is not. If a company wants to grow medical cannabis in Germany, they have to apply for a license with the cannabis agency of the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices.

    The agency has yet to grant any licenses, however, leaving Germany to import all of its cannabis from the Netherlands and Canada.

    But how is this stereotype affecting legit businesses and what can companies do to break free? In movies and on television, it seems every ensemble cast features some sort of lovable stoner. Chill, but lacking in motivation and general wherewithal, we all know the type. But now that weed is legal in some capacity in 30 states, the idea of the video game-loving, fast-food devouring stoner is proving bad for business.

    Dispelling the Stigma Across the country, marijuana companies are seeking out new and creative ways to shake off the stoner stereotype and present cannabis as the ticket to pain relief and recreation for people of all walks of life. For some companies, this comes across in more effective branding and marketing techniques — leveraging billboards and ads portraying nurses, doctors, grandparents, and more as responsible cannabis users instead of stoners.

    Other brands have set their sights on product design to add a more refined air to their weed products — ridding packaging of pot leaves in favor of sleek, modern designs. Thanks in large part to decades of criminalization, cannabis still has a reputation of the drug of choice for characters on the fringes of society, especially in movies and on television.

    Fast forward a few decades, and TV shows and movies are starting to show pot users in a more realistic light. As the image of the half-baked, goofy stoner are replaced with real-world representations of weed users, the tide of common opinion is sure to change. Can Pot Prevent Performance Anxiety? If you count yourself as part of this statistic — fear not!

    Cannabis may help make your next performance a total breeze. And your big speech is only a few hours away. Sure, you could freak out. Or you could enjoy a little cannabis and knock it out of the park. According to a recent study published in the Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, using cannabis prior to public speaking can reduce performance anxiety, as well as symptoms of daily, general anxiety.

    Participants were given mg, mg, or mg, and a placebo at random and then asked to give a 4-minute speech. Doctors assessed anxiety markers before, during, and after the speeches, and the findings were promising. Participants who received a mg CBD dose showed lower anxiety levels compared to those who received the placebo. Embracing the Benefits Based on these recent findings, people struggling with anxiety may have a truly effective option for managing symptoms.

    In the United States, that means roughly And, yes, it may make your next presentation more bearable, too. All jokes aside, studies like this one are proving tremendously valuable in further identifying the medical benefits of cannabis. As more applications are identified, more work may be done to legalize medicinal cannabis across the country. Recreational weed might not be too far behind. Recreational cannabis consumption is still prohibited, however.

    There are several ways to initiate the legalization of marijuana. In the United States, states have put it up for a vote, leaving it up to the residents to decide. Lawmakers can also create new acts of law, allowing the medical use of marijuana. In Mexico, however, several lawsuits have been filed over the last few years, as MerryJane. Five consistent rulings by the Mexican Supreme court are necessary before the judgment can be applied to all residents.

    Three rulings have been issued so far, which will likely put some pressure on the government. When will it be legal? While the people of Mexico will probably have to wait until at least to see some real change, things are moving quickly. Many resources have to be allocated to the war against drugs — resources that could be put to better use if marijuana became legal.

    Can Cannabis Help You Sleep? Even the best scientists have difficulty fully understanding sleep. But with the benefits of medical marijuana becoming more widely known worldwide, an increasing number are citing the benefits of using cannabis as a sleeping aid.

    Whether that sleepiness is good or bad for you in the long run is unclear, however. Many people struggle with chronic pain that keeps them awake at night. Others simply have difficulty relaxing and clearing their minds before falling asleep. Sleep aids are huge potential market, and one that an increasing number of cannabis brands will likely explore. Zzz Natural is one such brand. This could be good news for people suffering from nightmares due to PTSD, for instance.

    If you do begin using cannabis as a sleep aid, talk to your doctor regularly about the results, and jot down anything that could be considered a side effect. With the spread of cannabis east of the Rockies and into the most conservative parts of America, legislators have worked to cripple the intent of these laws, limit the industry to millionaires and billionaires, and restrict access so much that most patients have largely remained criminals even in legal medical marijuana states.

    Usually, the people who fight the lawmakers on crippling regulations in these states lose and the legislators mostly always win. But when medical marijuana finally made its way to Oklahoma, the law fought the people, and the people won. After covering cannabis issues nationwide, I was shocked by what I saw on a recent visit to Tulsa. Legal Oregon and Colorado are currently fighting for the right to consume socially. Legal California has added so many layers of bureaucracy to get into the legal market that most producers never moved onto it.

    Did I mention Oklahoma has reciprocity? As my new Sooner State friends and I socialized around a pool table, I learned that this victory in Oklahoma had little to do with money and everything to do with the hard work and dedication of the on-the-ground activists who fought for the law. Thanks to the obstruction of then-attorney general Scott Pruitt, the initiative was not certified or titled by the state appropriately or on time, leading to a lengthy court battle that kept it off the ballot.

    On March 27, , the Oklahoma Supreme Court ruled in favor of Oklahomans for Health, but they had already lost their shot at being on a high voter-turnout presidential ticket. In January , Governor Mary Fallin scheduled the SQ vote to what was expected to be the lowest possible turnout ticket; the June midterm primary election.

    The primary election on June 26, had one of the highest voter turnouts in Oklahoma state history, exceeding the turnouts on both the presidential primary and the gubernatorial election.

    Under the rules all smokable cannabis would be banned, pharmacists would be required to be present in dispensaries as part of the approval process and dispensaries would be limited to just It would force all women of childbearing age to obtain a pregnancy test before being granted safe access. Fallin was forced to sign into law rules that upheld the will of the voters-- removing these added provisions-- on August 6, Getting Out the Vote Since , an all patient and volunteer force of over Oklahomans in over 50 of the states 77 counties registered people to vote and passed out educational literature.

    They raised money through car washes, or pulled from their own limited funds. A new group, Green the Vote, was formed to support the petitions being run by Oklahomans for Health. During the petition drive, he converted it into a hour petition signing and voter registration hub and purchased the cots so volunteers could take breaks to rest. Green the Vote, as well as Oklahomans for Health, were able to register tens of thousands of Oklahomans to vote for SQ , some for the very first time.

    Their all-volunteer efforts played an essential role in the SQ victory. They came close, but just around 7, signatures shy of the , signature requirement to qualify this November.

    SQ would have legalized marijuana in Oklahoma for adult use and added a tax that would largely fund public education. SQ would have overrode SQ but made it more difficult for the legislature to make changes to the law, capped license fees and added a list of qualifying conditions for medical. Caviness believes that a constitutional amendment for adult use in is necessary to protect the over 1, licenses that have already been issued since the summer. He spent the first five months of this year in Northeastern Afghanistan before returning home to the Tulsa area just prior to the vote on SQ He has a full schedule; in the early mornings he spends time with his hospice patients before working in his private clinic, Evolved Health and Wellness in Broken Arrow, from 9 to 5.

    Afterwards, he goes straight to the hospital to treat his patients there until after midnight. On the weekends he takes care of his military duties. Still, he is seeing and writing over 50 cannabis recommendations a day and traveling to the farthest and most remote parts of the state to make sure all Oklahomans have access.

    He does free and discounted recommendations for the severely disabled and military veterans. He feels that if he can register a large patient population before the legislature meets, he can show how it has worked for so many conditions and prevent them from further limiting access. Can You Really Fly with Weed? You can now walk through Los Angeles International Airport with a small amount of weed.

    But what if you want to fly with it? According to a new policy, LAX will now allow people over 21 to carry up to Bringing that weed onto a plane is another story. However, if they suspect you of carrying pot or any other illegal drug, they will conduct a more thorough search.

    Keep in mind that this policy only applies to LAX. There are more than other airports in the U. Some airports — especially in foreign countries — conduct random searches of arriving passengers.

    Some even employ drug-sniffing dogs who can find your stash as soon as you get off the plane. As more and more states are legalizing marijuana for recreational use, more and more millennials are opting for weed over alcohol. Drinking — especially binge drinking — can come with a lot of consequences: Jena, a year-old woman who recently switched from alcohol to weed, told Marketwatch that she saves a lot of money by ditching the alcohol.

    All of those factors, coupled with increased access to legal weed, is driving many millennials to cut back on the bottle in favor of bud. Many prefer having a nice time with friends over getting drunk, and weed can give them that high.

    Weed is also seen as much safer than alcohol by many people — especially millennials. According to a recent poll published in The Tylt, And if millennials can have this much of an effect on a long-established industry, their potential influence on continued marijuana legalization efforts should be overlooked, either.

    Marijuana is now legal for private use in South Africa. Buying it there, however, is another story. You can even grow some weed for your private use. But while possessing or using your own weed is no longer a criminal offense, consuming it in public is still illegal, as is selling it, which means that South America will bypass significant potential tax revenue.

    Will weed be further legalized? For now, this is unlikely. The government still has two years to amend the current law on cannabis consumption, so any further changes might take some time. Your only option might be to make some friends who offer to let you smoke some of their homegrown stash. But even that could be dicey.

    In a distant and ancient past, the South — that deep-red Bible Belt, so solidly Republican Trump country that it took until this year for a Democratic Senate candidate in Texas to actually campaign — was a place where liberals were welcome.

    This historical reality feels so remote now, in an internet-fueled age of partisan divides so deep they may as well be blood feuds and they may be sometime soon , that it may as well be a creation myth.

    Just to add to the air of surreality, it appears there is possibly just one issue that unites America: North and South, East and West, conservative and liberal, we all like marijuana.

    And this includes in the conservative South, where both medical cannabis and recreational marijuana legalization efforts are real things. This is no outlier.

    In South Carolina, the cradle of secession, voters support legalizing cannabis outright by a nearly two-to one margin. That lead to two other state lawmakers, both Republicans, introducing a medical-marijuana legalization bill with a cheeky acronym: In Texas, where Ted Cruz faces a very credible challenge from a Democrat who wants to legalize marijuana outright, the state Republican Party officially added legalizing medical marijuana to their official state platform.

    If it is successful, Mississippi would have a more permissive medical-marijuana system than New York State. There would be no cap on the number of dispensaries, and patients would be able to qualify for cannabis if suffering from any one of a list of more than 12 medical conditions — including chronic pain, autism, and opiate addiction as well as post-traumatic stress disorder and cancer.

    In this way, anyone with an affliction for which cannabis gives relief would be able to secure access — again, something that is not a guarantee in blue states where cannabis is theoretically legal, like Minnesota. But where compassion falls short, you can always rely on old-school conservative values. Cash or compassion, the cannabis question is compelling some Mississippi lawmakers to go as far as to trust government.

    As per Mississippi Today: Dana Criswell, R-Olive Branch, said he supports legalizing medical marijuana but wrestles with reconciling his views on promoting individual liberty with reducing government regulation. In Arkansas, the greenest state in Dixie, the state attorney general has six times rejected a proposed ballot initiative that would legalize recreational marijuana.

    And Mississippi has a long way to go before discovering its chill. Mississippi is the state where Patrick Beadle, a year-old musician and practicing Rastafarian from Oregon caught with 2. Like kudzu, cannabis is taking over the south. Cannabis concentrates are obtained through extraction of the cannabis plant. The resin is compressed in order to make this smokable product. Butane hash oil is also a cannabis concentrate, known as BHO.

    Butane is used to extract cannabinoids from the plant. One of the possible reasons for the growth of the concentrates market is that new users find concentrates more comfortable to use. Concentrates might seem like a healthier alternative. This difference is also very appealing to entrepreneurs.

    Selling only flowers means attracting only customers who smoke, while selling different types of concentrates means attracting a wider range see: Are concentrates the next big thing for cannabis investors and entrepreneurs? It sure is looking that way. The National Hockey League hit the ice for another season this week. And many of its players are hitting more that that. The next few weeks are going to be very big in Canada, as the nation welcomes the return of its national pastime: The percentage of living humans not of school age who play gridiron football, the most popular spectator sport in America, is so small as to be statistically insignificant.

    Pro sports are spectator sports. And oh, do Canadians watch. As per a survey, eighty percent of the country — more than 28 million people — take in at least one NHL game a week. Exactly two weeks after pucks drop, at the stroke of midnight on October 17, recreational marijuana becomes officially legal in Canada.

    While cannabis is not quite as popular as ice hockey in Canada — according to a poll, 18 percent of Canadians copped to using cannabis, though since people are still reticent to tell a pollster about their drug habits, the real figure is likely higher — there is some excitement.

    Marijuana stores are weighing whether to open up at midnight, though it appears the first sales will occur online. As there should be: The Most Lenient League If you want to play professional sports while bent on recreational drugs — or merely get a little toasted after games or before practice — you should learn how to skate.

    Among the major organizations for top-level corporate-sponsored athletic competition in North America, the National Hockey League has possibly the most lenient attitude toward drug use. But unlike other leagues, and unlike steroids, there are no consequences for a positive test for cannabis. In rare cases, a player found to have excessive levels of something in his body is referred to treatment.

    Since every drug aside from cannabis is water soluble, and thus expelled from the body within hours of last use, you can see why the players might prefer the current arrangement. And thus far, it has not. Though there are a few notable outliers, hockey players have thus far reacted to this unparalleled freedom by smoking weed — and lots of it.

    Cannabis may alleviate some symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis MS. This study investigated the effect of an orally administered standardized Cannabis sativa plant extract in MS patients with poorly controlled spasticity. During their inpatient rehabilitation programme, 57 patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of cannabis-extract capsules standardized to 2.

    Patients in group A started with a drug escalation phase from 15 to maximally 30 mg THC by 5 mg per day if well tolerated, being on active medication for 14 days before starting placebo. Patients in group B started with placebo for seven days, crossed to the active period 14 days and closed with a three-day placebo period active drug dose escalation and placebo sham escalation as in group A.

    Measures used included daily self-report of spasm frequency and symptoms, Ashworth Scale, Rivermead Mobility Index, m timed walk, nine-hole peg test, paced auditory serial addition test PASAT , and the digit span test. In the 50 patients included into the intention-to-treat analysis set, there were no statistically significant differences associated with active treatment compared to placebo, but trends in favour of active treatment were seen for spasm frequency, mobility and getting to sleep.

    Minor adverse events were slightly more frequent and severe during active treatment, and toxicity symptoms, which were generally mild, were more pronounced in the active phase. A standardized Cannabis sativa plant extract might lower spasm frequency and increase mobility with tolerable side effects in MS patients with persistent spasticity not responding to other drugs. Unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its major compound THC-acid have potential immuno-modulating properties not mediated by CB1 and CB2 receptor coupled pathways.

    There is a great interest in the pharmacological properties of cannabinoid like compounds that are not linked to the adverse effects of Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol THC , e. The present paper describes the potential immuno-modulating activity of unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its main non-psychoactive constituent Delta 9 -tetrahydrocanabinoid acid THCa.

    Unheated Cannabis extract and THCa were able to inhibit the tumor necrosis factor alpha TNF-alpha levels in culture supernatants from U macrophages and peripheral blood macrophages after stimulation with LPS in a dose-dependent manner. This inhibition persisted over a longer period of time, whereas after prolonged exposure time THC and heated Cannabis extract tend to induce the TNF-alpha level. Duration of use of oral cannabis extract in a cohort of pediatric epilepsy patients.

    Oral cannabis extracts OCEs are being used in the treatment of epilepsy with increasing rates in the United States following product legalization; however, no studies demonstrate clear efficacy.

    We evaluated the duration of use of OCEs as a measure of perceived benefit in a cohort of patients with pediatric epilepsy. Retrospective chart review was performed of children and adolescents who were given OCEs for treatment of epilepsy.

    The average length of use of OCE was Parental report of OCE use in refractory pediatric epilepsy suggests that some families perceive benefit from this therapy; however, discontinuation of these products is common. Duration appears to be affected by logical factors, such as perceived benefit and side effect profile.

    Surprisingly, families of patients with Dravet syndrome terminated use of OCEs more quickly than patients with other epilepsy syndromes. Results from this study highlight the need for rigorous clinical studies to characterize the efficacy and safety of OCEs, which can inform discussions with patients and families. Parental reporting of response to oral cannabis extracts for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Oral cannabis extracts OCEs have been used in the treatment of epilepsy; however, no studies demonstrate clear efficacy.

    We report on a cohort of pediatric patients with epilepsy who were given OCE and followed in a single tertiary epilepsy center. A retrospective chart review of children and adolescents who were given OCE for treatment of their epilepsy was performed. The responder rate varied based on epilepsy syndrome: Additional benefits reported included: Rare adverse events included developmental regression, abnormal movements, status epilepticus requiring intubation, and death. Our retrospective study of OCE use in pediatric patients with epilepsy demonstrates that some families reported patient improvement with treatment; however, we also found a variety of challenges and possible confounding factors in studying OCE retrospectively in an open-labeled fashion.

    We strongly support the need for controlled, blinded studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of OCE for treatment of pediatric epilepsies using accurate seizure counts, formal neurocognitive assessments, as well as EEG as a biomarker.

    Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by Cannabis sativa chemotypes extracts with high content of cannabidiol or cannabigerol. Aldose reductase ALR2 is a key enzyme involved in diabetic complications and the search for new aldose reductase inhibitors ARIs is currently very important.

    The synthetic ARIs are often associated with deleterious side effects and medicinal and edible plants, containing compounds with aldose reductase inhibitory activity, could be useful for prevention and therapy of diabetic complications. Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids exert multiple pharmacological effects with therapeutic potential in many diseases such as inflammation, cancer, diabetes. Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effects of extracts and their fractions from two Cannabis sativa L.

    A molecular docking study was performed to evaluate the interaction of these cannabinoids with the active site of ALR2 compared to known ARIs. The inhibitory activity of the fractions was greater for acidic cannabinoid-rich fractions. Comparative molecular docking results have shown a higher stability of the ALR2-cannabinoid acids complex than the other inhibitors.

    These results may have some relevance for the possible use of C. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats.

    Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count.

    The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. Hempseed Cannabis sativa L. In the present study, we sought to define the underlying mechanism by which the extract of Fructus Cannabis EFC protects against memory impairment induced by D-galactose in rats.

    We found that EFC significantly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, while lowering levels of malondialdehyde in the hippocampus. Moreover, EFC dramatically elevated the organ indices of some organs, including the heart, the liver, the thymus, and the spleen.

    In addition, EFC improved the behavioral performance of rats treated with D-galactose in the Morris water maze. Furthermore, EFC inhibited the activation of astrocytes and remarkably attenuated phosphorylated tau and suppressed the expression of presenilin 1 in the brain of D-galactose-treated rats.

    These findings suggested that EFC exhibits beneficial effects on the cognition of aging rats probably by enhancing antioxidant capacity and anti-neuroinflammation, improving immune function, and modulating tau phosphorylation and presenilin expression. Testicular toxicity in cannabis extract treated mice: Intraperitoneal injection of cannabis extract at low doses total doses ranging from 40 mg to 60 mg per mouse induced adverse effect on testes and oxidative stress.

    At low doses, there was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in testicular lipid content, but the effects were significantly less at higher doses and at the withdrawal of cannabis treatment recovery dose.

    There was a marked decrease in antioxidant enzyme profiles superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and glutathione content at low doses, but these effects were higher at higher dose and at withdrawal of the treatment recovery effect. Histology revealed significant shrinkage of tubular diameter and detrimental changes in seminiferous epithelium of testis with resulting lowered serum testosterone and pituitary gonadotropins follicular stimulating [FSH] and luteinizing hormones [LH] levels at low doses.

    But at higher doses and particularly at withdrawal of the treatment, regression of various germ cell layers of testes through the revival of testosterone hormone and pituitary gonadotropins FSH and LH were observed, indicating that recovery effects on testes became operative possibly through the corrective measure of endogenous testicular antioxidant enzymes profiles and pituitary gonadotropins hormones feedback mechanisms.

    Besides the psychoactive Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol THC , hashish and marijuana as well as cannabis -based medicine extracts contain varying amounts of cannabidiol CBD and of the degradation product cannabinol CBN. The additional determination of these compounds is interesting from forensic and medical points of view because it can be used for further proof of cannabis exposure and because CBD is known to modify the effects of THC.

    The limits of detection were between 0. The method was applied in a prospective pharmacokinetic study after single oral administration of 10 mg THC alone or together with 5. The maximum plasma concentrations after cannabis extract administration ranged between 1. CBN was not detected. Caused by the strong first-pass metabolism, the concentrations of the metabolites were increased during the first hours after drug administration when compared to literature data for smoking.

    Cannabis has been used for centuries in the treatment of medical conditions. Cannabis has been recommended for appetite, anxiety, depression, sleep, and migraines. However, the stigma associated with cannabis as a recreational drug has created challenges to the legitimacy and social acceptance of cannabis for medical purposes in the United States. Adverse effects of cannabis. Cannabis , Cannabis sativa L. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults.

    What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology.

    The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general.

    The effects of cannabis are dosedependent. The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other.

    Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to. Cannabis extract treatment for terminal acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a Philadelphia chromosome mutation.

    To establish how aggressive the disease is, further chromosome testing is required to determine whether the cancer is myeloblastic and involves neutrophils, eosinophils or basophils, or lymphoblastic involving B or T lymphocytes.

    This case study is on a year-old patient diagnosed with a very aggressive form of ALL positive for the Philadelphia chromosome mutation. A standard bone marrow transplant, aggressive chemotherapy and radiation therapy were revoked, with treatment being deemed a failure after 34 months. Without any other solutions provided by conventional approaches aside from palliation, the family administered cannabinoid extracts orally to the patient.

    Cannabinoid resin extract is used as an effective treatment for ALL with a positive Philadelphia chromosome mutation and indications of dose-dependent disease control. The clinical observation in this study revealed a rapid dose-dependent correlation. Pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence.

    Background Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug in the world. Demand for treatment of cannabis use disorders is increasing. There are currently no pharmacotherapies approved for treatment of cannabis use disorders.

    Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapies as compared with each other, placebo or supportive care for reducing symptoms of cannabis withdrawal and promoting cessation or reduction of cannabis use. We also searched reference lists of articles, electronic sources of ongoing trials and conference proceedings, and contacted selected researchers active in the area. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials involving the use of medications to reduce the symptoms and signs of cannabis withdrawal or to promote cessation or reduction of cannabis use, or both, in comparison with other medications, placebo or no medication supportive care in participants diagnosed as cannabis dependent or who were likely to be dependent.

    Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two review authors assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. All review authors confirmed the inclusion decisions and the overall process. Main results We included 14 randomised controlled trials involving participants.

    For 10 studies the average age was 33 years; two studies targeted young people; and age data were not available for two studies. The studies were at low risk of selection, performance, detection and selective outcome reporting bias. Three studies were at risk of attrition bias. All studies involved comparison of active medication and placebo. The medications included preparations containing. Bayer AG has recently announced that it acquired exclusive rights for the marketing of GW Pharmaceuticals' new medicine Sativex in Europe and in other regions.

    Sativex is a sublingual spray on Cannabis extract basis, and is equipped with an electronic tool to facilitate accurate dosing and to prevent misuses. The new analgesic is proposed for the treatment of muscle spasticity and pains accompanying multiple sclerosis and as an efficient analgetic for neurogenic pain not responding well to opioids and to other therapies available.

    The entirely new mechanism of action through the recently discovered cannabinoid receptor system may offer a real therapeutic potential to the drug. Although the Government of Netherlands has authorized the sale of pharmaceutical grade Cannabis herb by pharmacies in the Netherlands, the availability on the pharmaceutical market of the registered preparation may render requests for the authorization of the smoking of Cannabis herb marihuana by individuals suffering of multiple sclerosis, neurogenic pain, AIDS wasting syndrome unnecessary.

    Nevertheless, the "old chameleon" plant Cannabis appears to gradually regain its previous status in mainstream therapy and pharmacy. As long as the plant Cannabis and its products continue to be classified as narcotic drugs, medical use of the new preparation will need close supervision. Cannabidiol, extracted from Cannabis sativa, selectively inhibits inflammatory hypermotility in mice. Cannabidiol is a Cannabis -derived non-psychotropic compound that exerts a plethora of pharmacological actions, including anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antitumour effects, with potential therapeutic interest.

    However, the actions of cannabidiol in the digestive tract are largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of cannabidiol on intestinal motility in normal control mice and in mice with intestinal inflammation.

    Motility in vivo was measured by evaluating the distribution of an orally administered fluorescent marker along the small intestine; intestinal inflammation was induced by the irritant croton oil; contractility in vitro was evaluated by stimulating the isolated ileum, in an organ bath, with ACh. In vivo, cannabidiol did not affect motility in control mice, but normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility.

    The inhibitory effect of cannabidiol was counteracted by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant, but not by the cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist SR N-[-1S-endo-1,3,3-trimethyl bicyclo [2. Cannabidiol did not reduce motility in animals treated with the fatty acid amide hydrolase FAAH inhibitor N-arachidonoylhydroxytryptamine, whereas loperamide was still effective.

    In vitro, cannabidiol inhibited ACh-induced contractions in the isolated ileum from both control and croton oil-treated mice. Cannabidiol selectively reduces croton oil-induced hypermotility in mice in vivo and this effect involves cannabinoid CB1 receptors and FAAH. In view of its low toxicity in humans, cannabidiol may represent a good candidate to normalize motility in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Influence of chronic oral intake of cannabis extract on oxidative and hydrolytic metabolism of xenobiotics in rat. The hydrolysis of acetylcholine was also unchanged. Upon withdrawal of treatment microsomal hydrolytic activity receded to basal levels within 7 days. An appraisal of the hepatic cytochrome P mediated oxidative metabolism revealed approximately three-fold induction of aromatic hydrocarbon hydroxylase AHH metabolizing benzo a pyrene whereas the N-demethylation of aminopyrene was unaffected.

    These activities were restored to normal when resin administration was discontinued. Extract from Fructus cannabis activating calcineurin improved learning and memory in mice with chemical drug-induced dysmnesia. To investigate the effects of extract from Fructus cannabis EFC that can activate calcineurin on learning and memory impairment induced by chemical drugs in mice.

    Bovine brain calcineurin and calmodulin were isolated from frozen tissues. The activity of calcineurin was assayed using p-nitrophenyl phosphate PNPP as the substrate. Step-down type passive avoidance test and water maze were used together to determine the effects of EFC on learning and memory dysfunction. EFC activated calcineurin activity at a concentration range of 0. EFC, given for 7 d, enhanced the spatial resolution of amnesic mice in water maze test.

    EFC overcome amnesia of three stages of memory process at the dose of 0. EFC with an activation role of calcineurin can improve the impaired learning and memory induced by chemical drugs in mice. The use of pesticides in Belgian illicit indoor cannabis plantations. The illicit indoor cannabis plantations that supply Belgian and European cannabis markets create problems and concerns about health and safety of intervention staff, dismantling companies, the direct environment of cannabis plantations and, eventually, of cannabis users.

    In the present research, we report on pesticides found in illicit indoor cannabis plantations in Belgium. We found pesticides in Overall, 19 pesticides belonging to different chemical classes were identified.

    We found o-phenylphenol, bifenazate, cypermethrin, imidacloprid, propamocarb, propiconazole and tebuconazole, which is consistent with the commonly reported pesticides from literature.

    In only a few cases, pesticides found in bottles with a commercial label, were also identified in plant or stagnant water samples collected from the growth rooms where the bottles had been collected. We further revealed that, even though most pesticides have a low volatility, they could be detected from the carbon filters hanging at the ceiling of cultivation rooms. As a result, it is likely that pesticides also prevail in the plantation atmosphere during and after cultivation.

    The risk of inhaling the latter pesticides increases when plants sprayed with pesticides are. The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea and inflammation.

    Current research is inspecting the use of cannabis for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystonia, and chronic pain. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and: Despite their therapeutic potential, cannabinoids are not free of side effects including psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse.

    Controlled clinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cannabis are few and small, whereas pressure for expanding cannabis use is increasing. Currently, as long as cannabis is classified as an illicit drug and until further controlled studies are performed, the use of medical cannabis should be limited to patients who failed conventional better established treatment. This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators.

    Three keywords " cannabis addiction," " cannabis dependence," and " cannabis abuse" were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed…. Cannabis is the most consumed psychoactive substance by young people.

    Chronic use of cannabis can lead to cannabis arteritis, which is a very rare peripheral vascular disease similar to Buerger's disease. It is affecting young adults, especially men, consuming cannabis. A year old woman, with no particular past medical history except for long-term use of cannabis and tobacco developed a digital necrosis in the left hand. She denied using other illicit drugs. Doppler ultrasound examination of the upper limbs was unremarkable.

    Toxicological analysis revealed the presence of cannabis in both biological fluid and hair strand. Despite medical treatment, cessation of the cannabis and tobacco consumption and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, an amputation of necrotic parts was then required.

    This case shows the prolonged use of cannabis could be a risk factor for young adult arteritis. Faced with a rapidly progressive arteritis occurring in young adult, the physician should consider the history of use of cannabis.

    Hair analysis can be useful for confirmation of the chronic consumption of drugs. Pharmaceutical grade cannabis is available to Dutch patients from public pharmacies in the Netherlands. The first part of this paper reviews the pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties of medicinal cannabis. Detailed information about its composition and quality, potential applications, methods of administration, adverse reactions, drug interactions and safety during pregnancy or breastfeeding are given.

    The second part deals with the legal aspects of dispensing medicinal cannabis through pharmacies in view of the Belgian and Dutch legislation. The last part discusses the present Belgian regulation about the possession of cannabis. Inflammatory bowel diseases IBDs include Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. Cannabis sativa preparations have beneficial effects for IBD patients. Although there is much knowledge of the activity of different cannabinoids and their receptor agonists or antagonists, the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity of whole C.

    The anti-inflammatory activity of C. The anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis extracts derives from D9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid THCA present in fraction 7 F7 of the extract. However, all fractions of C. GPR55 receptor antagonist significantly reduces the anti-inflammatory activity of F7, whereas cannabinoid type 2 receptor antagonist significantly increases HCT cell proliferation. Also, cannabidiol CBD shows dose dependent cytotoxic activity, whereas anti-inflammatory activity was found only for the low concentration of CBD, and in a bell-shaped rather than dose-dependent manner.

    Activity of the extract and active fraction was verified on colon tissues taken from IBD patients, and was shown to suppress cyclooxygenase-2 COX2 and metalloproteinase-9 MMP9 gene expression in both cell culture and colon tissue. It is suggested that the anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis. It is suggested that the anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis extracts.

    The University of Florida Training Reactor UFTR facilities including the analytical laboratory are used for a wide range of educational, research, training, and service functions. The UFTR utilizes high enriched plate-type fuel in a two-slab arrangement and operates at a kW power level. Since first licensed to operate at 10 kW in , this nonpower reactor facility has had an active but evolving record of continuous service to a wide range of academic, utility, and community users.

    Because of its relatively low power and careful laboratory analyses, the UFTR neutron flux characteristics in several ports are not only well characterized but they are also quite invariant with time.

    The analysis of untreated evidential botanical samples presented a unique opportunity to demonstrate implementation of this method at the UFTR facilities. Historical and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Cannabis -induced impairment of learning and memory: Cannabis sativa preparations are the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Cannabis sativa extract in the working memory version of the Morris water maze MWM; Morris, [43] test and determine the effect of standard memory enhancing drugs.

    Mice were examined three times weekly for their ability to locate a submerged platform. Mice were euthanized 30 days after starting cannabis injection when biochemical assays were carried out. Cannabis resulted in a significant increase in the time taken to locate the platform and enhanced the memory impairment produced by scopolamine. This effect of cannabis decreased by memory enhancing drugs with piracetam resulting in the most-shorter latency compared with the cannabis.

    Biochemically, cannabis altered the oxidative status of the brain with decreased MDA, increased GSH, but decreased nitric oxide and glucose. In cannabis -treated rats, the level of GSH in brain was increased after vinpocetine and donepezil and was markedly elevated after Ginkgo biloba. Piracetam restored the decrease in glucose and nitric oxide by cannabis. Cannabis caused dose-dependent increases of brain serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine.

    After cannabis treatment, noradrenaline is restored to its normal value by donepezil, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba, but increased by piracetam. The level of dopamine was significantly reduced by piracetam, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba. These data indicate that cannabis administration is associated with impaired memory performance which is likely to involve decreased brain glucose.

    Allergy diagnosis and immunotherapy in Korea rely mostly on imported allergen extracts. However, some allergens that are not important in Western countries are not commercially available, and even the same species of allergen source often displays differences in allergenicity due to amino acid sequence polymorphisms. Therefore, it is essential to prepare allergen extracts that reflect regional characteristics.

    Allergen standardization has been performed since with the support of the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Here, we summarize the current status of allergen standardization , focusing on the house dust mite and cockroach.

    Pollen allergens that are under investigation are also briefly described. Development of a standardized sequential extraction protocol for simultaneous extraction of multiple actinide elements. Sequential extraction is a useful technique for assessing the potential to leach actinides from soils; however, current literature lacks uniformity in experimental details, making direct comparison of results impossible.

    This work continued development toward a standardized five-step sequential extraction protocol by analyzing extraction behaviors of Th, U, ,Pu and Am from lake and ocean sediment reference materials.

    Results produced a standardized procedure after creating more defined reaction conditions to improve method repeatability. A NaOH fusion procedure is recommended following sequential leaching for the complete dissolution of insoluble species. Nonetheless, side effects, like dizziness and hallucinations, and long-term effects concerning memory and cognition, can occur. Most alarming is the lack of a standardised procedure to extract medicinal cannabis. Indeed, each galenical preparation has an unknown chemical composition in terms of cannabinoids and other active principles that depends on the extraction procedure.

    The data sets were processed by unsupervised multivariate analysis. Our results suggested that the main difference lies in the ratio of acid to decarboxylated cannabinoids, which dramatically influences the pharmacological activity of CMEs. Minor cannabinoids, alkaloids, and amino acids contributing to this difference are also discussed.

    Notwithstanding the use of a standardised starting plant material, great changes are caused by different extraction procedures. The metabolomics approach is a useful tool for the evaluation of the chemical composition of cannabis extracts. Background Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis. Method The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in 7—8 has engaged in medical marijuana use.

    In relation to location, prevalence proportions reveal important variations across countries and between subgroups within countries. Regarding causes and mechanisms of starting to use cannabis , there is no compelling integrative and replicable conceptual model or theoretical formulation. A brief review of cannabis use consequences, as well as prevention and control strategies is also provided.

    Conclusion At present, we know much about the frequency and occurrence of cannabis use, with too little replicable definitive evidence with respect to the other main rubrics.

    Given a changing regulatory environment for cannabis products, new institutions such as an independent International Cannabis Products Safety Commission may be required to produce evidence required to weigh benefits versus costs.

    It is not clear that government sponsored research will be sufficient to meet consumer demand for balanced points of view and truly definitive evidence. Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis.

    To review evidence from epidemiological research on cannabis , organized in relation to this field's five main rubrics: The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in has engaged in medical marijuana use.

    Most studies of mechanisms have focused upon a 'gateway sequence' and person-to-person diffusion, with some recent work on disability-adjusted life years.

    At present, we know much about the frequency and occurrence of cannabis use, with too little replicable definitive evidence with respect to the other main rubrics. It is not clear that governmentsponsored research will be sufficient to meet consumer demand for balanced points of view and truly definitive evidence.

    The preparations may consist of a drug partition in sachets, capsules or through the extraction in certified olive oil. The aims of the study were: The method was then fully validated. The method assessed to be linear over the range 0. Imprecision and accuracy were within The method was then applied to olive oil after sample preparation, in order to evaluate the efficiency of extraction of a new generation instrument.

    Temperature of extraction is the most relevant factor to be optimized. The developed method was simple and fast. The extraction procedure proved to be. A review of the world cannabis situation. Cannabis is the world's most widely cultivated and consumed illicit drug, but there remain major gaps in our understanding of global cannabis markets.

    For example, it appears that premium sinsemilla cannabis , often produced indoors in consumer countries, has become more potent in recent years and that its market share is also growing in some areas. This may be leading to greater localization of cannabis markets. It may also be responsible for the increase in the proportion of cannabis users in treatment populations at the international level. Assessing the extent and impact of this trend, however, is hampered both by a lack of international standards on issues such as terminology and by unanswered research questions.

    In order to arrive at accurate global estimates of the extent of production, there is a need for more scientific data on cannabis yields. On the demand side, more information is required on the question of cannabis dosage and volumes used by both occasional and regular users. Cannabis is not a uniform drug: While issues concerning cannabis have been evaluated many times in the past, it remains a highly adaptable plant and, consequently, a dynamic drug, requiring constant reassessment.

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals who used medical cannabis for chronic pain were at increased risk for cannabis use problems compared with individuals who used medical cannabis for other reasons e.

    An additional aim was to determine whether individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain, as well as those who reported greater within-group pain levels, demonstrated a species preference i. Individuals who used cannabis to manage chronic pain experienced fewer cannabis use problems than those who did not use it for pain; among those who used it for pain, the average pain level in the past week was not associated with cannabis use problems.

    Furthermore, individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain were more likely to use indica over sativa. Preference for indica was associated with fewer cannabis use problems than preference for hybrid species. Individuals who use cannabis to manage chronic pain may be at a lower risk for cannabis use problems, relative to individuals who use it for other indications, potentially as a function of their species preference.

    Exposure to cannabis in popular music and cannabis use among adolescents. Cannabis use is referenced frequently in American popular music, yet it remains uncertain whether exposure to these references is associated with actual cannabis use.

    We aimed to determine if exposure to cannabis in popular music is associated independently with current cannabis use in a cohort of urban adolescents. We surveyed all 9th grade students at three large US urban high schools.

    We estimated participants' exposure to lyrics referent to cannabis with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists' songs. Outcomes included current past 30 days and ever use of cannabis. We used multivariable regression to assess independent associations between exposures and outcomes while controlling for important covariates. Each of the participants was exposed to an estimated 27 cannabis references per day [correction added on 19 January , after first online publication: As expected, however, there was no significant relationship between our cannabis exposure variable and a sham outcome variable of alcohol use.

    This study supports an independent association between exposure to cannabis in popular music and early cannabis use among urban American adolescents. Psychiatric Morbidity of Cannabis Abuse. The paper evaluates the hypothesis that cannabis abuse is associated with a broad range of psychiatric disorders in India, an area with relatively high prevalence of cannabis use.

    Retrospective case-note review of all cases with cannabis related diagnosis over a 11 -year period, for subjects presenting to a tertiary psychiatric hospital in southern India was carried out. Information pertaining to sociodemographic, personal, social, substance-use related, psychiatric and treatment histories, was gathered.

    Standardized diagnoses were made according to Diagnostic Criteria for Research of the World Health Organization, on the basis of information available. Cannabis abuse is associated with widespread psychiatric morbidity that spans the major categories of mental disorders under the ICD system, although proportion of patients with psychotic disorders far outweighed those with non-psychotic disorders. Whilst paranoid psychoses were more prevalent, a significant number of patients with affective psychoses, particularly mania, was also noted.

    Besides being known as either the causative agent or a potent risk factor in cases of paranoid psychoses, cannabis appears to have similar capabilities with regard to affective psychoses, particularly in cases of mania. It is suggested that cannabis has the potential to act as a "life event stressor" amongst subjects vulnerable to develop affective psychoses and the possible aetiopathogenesis of such a finding is discussed.

    Background Many people with schizophrenia use cannabis and its effects on the illness are unclear. Objectives To evaluate the effects of cannabis use on people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like illnesses. Selection criteria We included all randomised trials involving cannabinoids and people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently.

    For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences WMD again based on a fixed effects model. Main results We identified one randomised trial. This review highlights the need for well designed, conducted and reported clinical trials to address the potential effects of cannabis based compounds for people with schizophrenia.

    A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive.

    Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4. Nabiximols as an agonist replacement therapy during cannabis withdrawal: There are no medications approved for treating cannabis dependence or withdrawal.

    The cannabis extract nabiximols Sativex , developed as a multiple sclerosis treatment, offers a potential agonist medication for cannabis withdrawal. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of nabiximols in treating cannabis withdrawal. A 2-site, double-blind randomized clinical inpatient trial with a day follow-up was conducted in New South Wales, Australia.

    A 6-day regimen of nabiximols maximum daily dose, Severity of cannabis withdrawal and cravings Cannabis Withdrawal Scale , retention in withdrawal treatment, and adverse events. Secondary outcomes include postwithdrawal cannabis use, health outcomes, and psychosocial outcomes.

    Nabiximols treatment significantly reduced the overall severity of cannabis withdrawal relative to placebo F8, Nabiximols had a more limited, but still positive, therapeutic benefit on sleep disturbance, anxiety, appetite loss, physical symptoms, and restlessness.

    Nabiximols patients remained in treatment longer during medication use unadjusted hazard ratio, 3. Both groups showed reduced cannabis use at follow-up, with no advantage of. The therapeutic potential of cannabis and cannabinoids. Cannabis -based medications have been a topic of intense study since the endogenous cannabinoid system was discovered two decades ago. In , for the first time, a cannabis extract was approved for clinical use in Germany.

    Cannabis -based medications exert their effects mainly through the activation of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. More than controlled clinical trials of cannabinoids or whole-plant preparations for various indications have been conducted since The findings of these trials have led to the approval of cannabis -based medicines dronabinol, nabilone, and a cannabis extract [THC: In Germany, a cannabis extract was approved in for the treatment of moderate to severe refractory spasticity in multiple sclerosis.

    It is commonly used off label for the treatment of anorexia, nausea, and neuropathic pain. Patients can also apply for government permission to buy medicinal cannabis flowers for self-treatment under medical supervision. Tolerance to these side effects nearly always develops within a short time. Withdrawal symptoms are hardly ever a problem in the therapeutic setting. There is now clear evidence that cannabinoids are useful for the treatment of various medical conditions.

    Cannabis for Chronic Pain: The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has found substantial evidence that cannabis plant is effective for the treatment of chronic pain in adults, and moderate evidence that oromucosal cannabinoids extracts , especially nabiximols improve short-term sleep disturbances in chronic pain.

    The paradoxical superiority of the cannabis plant over cannabinoid molecules represents a challenge for the medical community and the established processes that define modern pharmacy. The expanding and variable legalization of cannabis in multiple states nationwide represents an additional challenge for patients and the medical community because recreational and medicinal cannabis are irresponsibly overlapped. Cannabis designed for recreational use containing high levels of active ingredients is increasingly available to patients with chronic pain who do not find relief with current pharmacologic entities, which exposes patients to potential harm.

    This article analyzes the available scientific evidence to address controversial questions that the current state of cannabis poses for health care professionals and chronic pain patients and sets the basis for a more open discussion about the role of cannabis in modern medicine for pain management.

    A critical discussion on these points, the legal status of cannabis , and considerations for health care providers is presented. Cannabidivarin-rich cannabis extracts are anticonvulsant in mouse and rat via a CB1 receptor-independent mechanism. The isobolographic study revealed that the anticonvulsant effects of purified CBDV and CBD were linearly additive when co-administered. Urine samples are diluted with a mixture of isotope labelled internal standards.

    A total chromatographic run-time of 15 min is required for adequate resolution. Automated quantitation software algorithms have been developed in-house using XML scripting to partially automate the identification of positive samples, taking into account ion ratio IR and retention times Rt. Development of a new extraction technique and HPLC method for the analysis of non-psychoactive cannabinoids in fibre-type Cannabis sativa L.

    The present work was aimed at the development and validation of a new, efficient and reliable technique for the analysis of the main non-psychoactive cannabinoids in fibre-type Cannabis sativa L.

    This study was designed to identify samples with a high content of bioactive compounds, with a view to underscoring the importance of quality control in derived products as well. Different extraction methods, including dynamic maceration DM , ultrasound-assisted extraction UAE , microwave-assisted extraction MAE and supercritical-fluid extraction SFE were applied and compared in order to obtain a high yield of the target analytes from hemp.

    Dynamic maceration for 45min with ethanol EtOH at room temperature proved to be the most suitable technique for the extraction of cannabinoids in hemp samples. The application of the fused-core technology allowed us to obtain a significant improvement of the HPLC performance compared with that of conventional particulate stationary phases, with a shorter analysis time and a remarkable reduction of solvent usage.

    The analytical method optimized in this study was fully validated to show compliance with international requirements. Furthermore, it was applied to the characterization of nine hemp samples and six hemp-based pharmaceutical products. As such, it was demonstrated to be a very useful tool for the analysis of cannabinoids in both the plant material and its derivatives for. Do cannabis -based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis?

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on patients. The objective was to determine whether a cannabis -based medicinal extract CBME benefits a range of symptoms due to multiple sclerosis MS. A parallel group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was undertaken in three centres, recruiting outpatients with MS experiencing significant problems from at least one of the following: Additional measures included VAS scores of other symptoms, and measures of disability, cognition, mood, sleep and fatigue.

    There were no significant adverse effects on cognition or mood and intoxication was generally mild. As a part of the project for the Chinese Pharmacopoeia edition , the quality standard of Sophora flavescens root extract was investigated and established.

    According to the methods described in the Appendix of Chinese Pharmacopoeia edition , the water and ash inspections were carried out. The marker components trifolirhizin, sophoraflavanone G, oxymatrine and oxysophocarpine in the samples were identified by qualitative TLC.

    The determination of oxymatrine, matrine, oxysophocarpine and sophocarpine was conducted by HPLC and the total flavonoids were measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, using sophoraflavanone G as reference substance.

    The results indicated the spots on the plate were clear with good resolution and the contents of oxymatrine, matrine, oxysophocarpine and sophocarpine in the 13 batches of the samples were 3. The total flavoids in the 13 batches of the samples were 3. In the study, the validated methods were reproducible and the established quality standard was feasible, which could be used for the quality control of S. Association between increased EEG signal complexity and cannabis dependence.

    Both acute and regular cannabis use affects the functioning of the brain. While several studies have demonstrated that regular cannabis use can impair the capacity to synchronize neural assemblies during specific tasks, less is known about spontaneous brain activity. This can be explored by measuring EEG complexity, which reflects the spontaneous variability of human brain activity.

    A recent study has shown that acute cannabis use can affect that complexity. Since the characteristics of cannabis use can affect the impact on brain functioning, this study sets out to measure EEG complexity in regular cannabis users with or without dependence, in comparison with healthy controls.

    We recruited 26 healthy controls, 25 cannabis users without cannabis dependence and 14 cannabis users with cannabis dependence, based on DSM IV TR criteria. The EEG signal was extracted from at least epochs of the ms pre-stimulation phase during a visual evoked potential paradigm. The analysis revealed a significant difference between the groups, with higher LZC in participants with cannabis dependence than in non-dependent cannabis users. There was no specific localization of this effect across electrodes.

    We showed that cannabis dependence is associated to an increased spontaneous brain complexity in regular users. This result is in line with previous results in acute cannabis users. It may reflect increased randomness of neural activity in cannabis dependence. Future studies should explore whether this effect is permanent or diminishes with cannabis cessation.

    The cannabis plant and its derivatives have been exploited for centuries for recreational and medicinal purposes, with millions of regular users around the world.

    The recreational use of cannabis is reflective of its neuropsychiatric effects, such as anxiolysis and euphoria. However, cannabis appears to have an emerging therapeutic role, especially in chronic disease and as an adjunct to cancer treatment. Increasing evidence supports cannabis in the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting CINV and for pain management; however, studies are limited, particularly by difficulties associated with standardized dosing estimates and inability to accurately assess biologic activities of compounds in cannabis and derivative products.

    Smoking cannabis has not been proved to be a risk factor in the development of lung cancer, but the data are limited by small studies, misclassification due to self-reporting of use, small numbers of heavy cannabis smokers, and confounding of the risk associated with known causative agents for lung cancer such as parallel chronic tobacco use. Cannabis and its biologically effective derivatives warrant additional research, ideally, controlled trials in which the cannabidiol and the deltatetrahydrocabinol strength and use are controlled and documented.

    Published by Elsevier Inc. The main characteristics of cannabis dependence are craving, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use and important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced because of cannabis use.

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