As more and more states legalize the use of marijuana, a product known as CBD oil has surged in popularity. A chemical compound found in the cannabis plant. Cannabidiol, or CBD, is a chemical compound in marijuana with a variety of uses . Here are 7 benefits of CBD oil. CBD is found primarily in extractions from the hemp plant. It's sold in gels, gummies, oils, supplements, extracts, and more. THC is the main psychoactive.
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Refer to our editorial policy for content sources and attributions. We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information - verify here. Cannabis Medically reviewed by L. Cannabis sativa , also known as hemp, is a species of the Cannabinaceae family of plants. Cannabis contains the chemical compound THC delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol , which is believed to be responsible for most of the characteristic psychoactive effects of cannabis.
The dried leaves and flowers of the cannabis plant are known as marijuana, which can be smoked through a pipe or bong or hand-rolled into a joint or taken orally with food baked in cookies.
The resinous secretions of the plant are known as hashish , which can be smoked or eaten. The fiber of the cannabis plant is cultivated as industrial hemp with uses in textile manufacturing. Important information Do not drive, operate machinery, or perform other hazardous activities while using cannabis. It may cause dizziness, drowsiness, and impaired judgment.
Do not drink alcohol while using cannabis. Alcohol will increase dizziness, drowsiness, and impaired judgment. Cannabis may increase the effects of other drugs that cause drowsiness, including antidepressants, alcohol, antihistamines, sedatives used to treat insomnia , pain relievers, anxiety medicines, seizure medicines, and muscle relaxants.
Cannabis is a Schedule 1 drug under the Controlled Substances Act. Sources Michigan just became the 10th state to legalise marijuana. Here's where marijuana won and lost in the midterms. Accessed June 25, at https: Drug Enforcement Administration Cannabis Information - http: Cablivi Cablivi caplacizumab-yhdp is a von Willebrand factor vWF -directed antibody Jeuveau Jeuveau prabotulinumtoxinA is a proprietary kDa purified botulinum toxin In addition, the FAAH substrates palmitoylethanolamide and linoleoyl-ethanolamide both lipid mediators were also elevated in the CBD group.
CBD showed less serum prolactin increase predictor of galactorrhoea and sexual dysfunction , fewer extrapyramidal symptoms measured with the Extrapyramidal Symptom Scale, and less weight gain.
Moreover, electrocardiograms as well as routine blood parameters were other parameters whose effects were measured but not reported in the study. CBD better safety profile might improve acute compliance and long-term treatment adherence. A press release by GW Pharmaceuticals of September 15th, , described 88 patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenic psychosis, treated either with CBD in addition to their regular medication or placebo.
Important clinical parameters improved in the CBD group and the number of mild side effects was comparable to the placebo group.
Moreover, neurological and physiological examinations were performed, which neither showed signs of CBD toxicity nor severe side effects. The study also illustrated that CBD was well tolerated. CBD in addition to their regular epilepsy medication. Another clinical study lasting at least 3 months with children and young adults with various forms of epilepsy, who were treated with the CBD drug Epidiolex, was presented at the American Academy for Neurology in In a few cases, severe side effects occurred, but it is not clear, if these were caused by Epidiolex.
The largest CBD study conducted thus far was an open-label study with Epidiolex in patients mainly children, the average age of the participants was 11 suffering from severe epilepsy, who could not be treated sufficiently with standard medication. Ten percent of the patients reported side effects tiredness, diarrhea, and exhaustion.
After extensive literature study of the available trials performed until September , CBD side effects were generally mild and infrequent. The only exception seems to be a multicenter open-label study with a total of patients aged 1—30 years, with treatment-resistant epilepsy. This led to a reduction in seizure frequency. It is therefore difficult to put the side effect frequency into perspective.
Attributing the side effects to CBD is also not straightforward in severely sick patients. Thus, it is not possible to draw reliable conclusions on the causation of the observed side effects in this study. This rating instrument comprised the following factors: This assessment instrument analyzes adverse medication effects, including psychic, neurologic, autonomic, and other manifestations.
Using various safety outcome variables, clinical tests, and the cannabis side effect inventory, it was shown that there were no differences between the placebo group and the CBD group in the observed side effects. The occurrence of various degrees of GVHD was compared with historical data from patients, who had only received the standard treatment. This resulted in lower resistin levels compared to baseline.
The hormone resistin is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Compared to baseline, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide levels were elevated after CBD treatment.
This incretin hormone is produced in the proximal duodenum by K cells and has insulinotropic and pancreatic b cell preserving effects. CBD was well tolerated in the patients. However, with the comparatively low CBD concentrations used in this phasetrial, no overall improvement of glycemic control was observed.
When weight and appetite were measured as part of a measurement battery for side effects, results were inconclusive. For instance, the study mentioned above, where 23 children with Dravet syndrome were treated, increases as well as decreases in appetite and weight were observed as side effects.
However, in the safety analysis group, consisting of subjects, 10 showed decreased weight and 12 had gained weight. Both these factors were not controlled for in the reviewed studies. This review could substantiate and expand the findings of Bergamaschi et al. First, more studies researching CBD side effects after real chronic administration need to be conducted.
Many so-called chronic administration studies, cited here were only a couple of weeks long. Second, many trials were conducted with a small number of individuals only. To perform a throrough general safety evaluation, more individuals have to be recruited into future clinical trials.
Third, several aspects of a toxicological evaluation of a compound such as genotoxicity studies and research evaluating CBD effect on hormones are still scarce. Especially, chronic studies on CBD effect on, for example, genotoxicity and the immune system are still missing. Last, studies that evaluate whether CBD-drug interactions occur in clinical trials have to be performed. In conclusion, CBD safety profile is already established in a plethora of ways. However, some knowledge gaps detailed above should be closed by additional clinical trials to have a completely well-tested pharmaceutical compound.
The study was commissioned by the European Industrial Hemp Association. EIHA paid nova-Institute for the review. Iffland K, Grotenhermen F An update on safety and side effects of cannabidiol: National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Cannabis Cannabinoid Res v. Published online Jun 1. Find articles by Kerstin Iffland.
Find articles by Franjo Grotenhermen. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Relevant Preclinical Studies Before we discuss relevant animal research on CBD possible effects on various parameters, several important differences between route of administration and pharmacokinetics between human and animal studies have to be mentioned. Open in a separate window.
The reality is more complex, because CBD is lipophilic and, for example, will consequently accumulate in fat tissue. These calculations were made with the intention to give the reader an impression and an approximation of the supraphysiological levels used in in vitro studies. CBD-drug interactions Cytochrome Pcomplex enzymes This paragraph describes CBD interaction with general drug -metabolizing enzymes, such as those belonging to the cytochrome P family.
Neurological and neurospychiatric effects Anxiety and depression Some studies indicate that under certain circumstances, CBD acute anxiolytic effects in rats were reversed after repeated day administration of CBD. Psychosis and bipolar disorder Various studies on CBD and psychosis have been conducted. Addiction CBD, which is nonhedonic, can reduce heroin-seeking behavior after, for example, cue-induced reinstatement.
Neuroprotection and neurogenesis There are various mechanisms underlying neuroprotection, for example, energy metabolism whose alteration has been implied in several psychiatric disorders and proper mitochondrial functioning.
Immune system Numerous studies show the CBD immunomodulatory role in various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, arthritis, and diabetes. Cell migration Embryogenesis CBD was shown to be able to influence migratory behavior in cancer, which is also an important aspect of embryogenesis.
Cancer Various studies have been performed to study CBD anticancer effects. Food intake and glycemic effects Animal studies summarized by Bergamaschi et al.
Genotoxicity and mutagenicity Jones et al. Acute Clinical Data Bergamaschi et al. Physiological effects In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, CBD was coadministered with intravenous fentanyl to a total of 17 subjects. Psychosis The review by Bergamaschi et al. Addiction A case study describes a patient treated for cannabis withdrawal according to the following CBD regimen: Endocrine effects and glycemic including appetite effects To the best of our knowledge, no acute studies were performed that solely concentrated on CBD glycemic effects.
Physiological effects A first pilot study in healthy volunteers in by Mincis et al. Neurological and neuropsychiatric effects Anxiety Clinical chronic lasting longer than a couple of weeks studies in humans are crucial here but were mostly still lacking at the time of writing this review.
Psychosis and bipolar disorder In a 4-week open trial, CBD was tested on Parkinson's patients with psychotic symptoms. Conclusion This review could substantiate and expand the findings of Bergamaschi et al. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Cannabis und Cannabinoide in der Medizin: Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes.
Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington's disease. Molecular targets of cannabidiol in neurological disorders. Exogenous cannabinoids as substrates, inhibitors, and inducers of human drug metabolizing enzymes: Distinct effects of D9-tetrahydro-cannabinoland cannabidiol on neural activation during emotional processing. Safety and pharmacokinetics of oral cannabidiol when administered concomitantly with intravenous fentanyl in humans. Inhibition and induction of human cytochrome P CYP enzymes.
How physicochemical properties of drugs affect their metabolism and clearance. New horizons in predictive drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Royal Society of Chemistry: Human metabolites of cannabidiol: Induction and genetic regulation of mouse hepatic cytochrome P by cannabidiol. ABC transporters P-gp and Bcrp do not limit the brain uptake of the novel antipsychotic and anticonvulsant drug cannabidiol in mice. Cannabidiol enhances xenobiotic permeability through the human placental barrier by direct inhibition of breast cancer resistance protein: Am J Obstet Gynecol.
Influence of single and repeated cannabidiol administration on emotional behavior and markers of cell proliferation and neurogenesis in non-stressed mice.
Cannabidiol, among other cannabinoid drugs, modulates prepulse inhibition of startle in the SHR animal model: Cannabidiol attenuates sensorimotor gating disruption and molecular changes induced by chronic antagonism of NMDA receptors in mice. Effects of cannabidiol on amphetamine-induced oxidative stress generation in an animal model of mania. Cannabidiol, a nonpsychotropic component of cannabis, inhibits cue-induced heroin seeking and normalizes discrete mesolimbic neuronal disturbances.
Schurr A, Livne A. Differential inhibition of mitochondrial monoamine oxidase from brain by hashish components. Neuroprotective effects of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol in hypoxicischemic newborn piglets. Acute and chronic administration of cannabidiol increases mitochondrial complex and creatine kinase activity in the rat brain.
Inhibiting heat shock proteins can potentiate the cytotoxic effect of cannabidiol in human glioma cells. Cannabidiol CBD and its analogs: The antitumor activity of plant-derived non-psychoactive cannabinoids. Long-term cannabidiol treatment prevents the development of social recognition memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice. Cannabidiol arrests onset of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis.
Id-1 gene and protein as novel therapeutic targets for metastatic cancer. The preimplantation mouse embryo is a target for cannabinoid ligand-receptor signaling. Pharmacological targeting of ion channels for cancer therapy: Cannabidiol inhibits cancer cell invasion via upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases Cannabidiol inhibits lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis via intercellular adhesion molecule Gene and protein as novel therapeutic targets for metastatic cancer.
Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells. Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol as potential curative agents for cancer: Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer. Medications used for treating depression are of different classes, each with a different mechanism of action, characteristics, and side effects.
These drugs generally increase the concentration of stimulant substances in the brain to improve the depressive symptoms. Patients with depression could benefit from a number of home remedies which could help to improve their symptoms, in addition to antidepressants and therapy:. Cannabidiol CBD is a naturally occurring chemical compound found in the hemp plant. It is one of the numerous unique compounds called cannabinoids which naturally occur in hemp.
Generally, cannabinoids can be produced in the body these are known as endocannabinoids or found in the hemp plant as phytocannabinoids. CBD is a phytocannabinoid which helps to stimulate the regulation of the central nervous system.
CBD, therefore, helps supplement the effects of endocannabinoids in regulating appetite, mood, functions of the immune system, sensation, and keeping our bodies working normally. CBD oil is made from hemp plants and can be purchased legally in the United States. CBD is available in different forms such as tinctures, concentrates, capsules, sprays, tapes, and topicals.
Both of them represent the commonest compounds found in the plant. However, they have numerous differences.
CBD, on the other hand, is not a psychoactive substance as it does not act via the same biological pathways in the body as THC. Although, CBD oil has not been approved by the FDA for the treatment of any condition, there have been several studies demonstrating some of its health benefits:. CBD is a non-psychoactive form of cannabinoid which has been found not to interfere with the cognitive functions of the brain. This is mainly because CBD does not contain any addictive substances, in contrast to THC and some cannabinoids which contain such and are, therefore, capable of being addictive.
There have been extensive reviews on the toxic potentials of CBD and reports have revealed that CBD has a relatively low toxicity. It has been found to be safe with little potential for adverse effects. CBD was found to have no effect on fetal development and other bodily functions.
However, reports demonstrate that some reactions may occur as a result of its interactions with other drugs co-administered with it. CBD has been found to be effective in the treatment of depression. While CBD does not cure the condition, it has been linked to improvement of the symptoms.
CBD Oil: A Cure for Depression?
CBD is a natural chemical derived from the cannabis plant. CBD Oil. Most of the side effects regarding CBD have been witnessed in vitro. Learn more about Cannabidiol uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Cannabidiol. Cannabis is a drug of abuse also known as grass, hashish, hemp, marijuana and pot. Includes cannabis side effects, interactions and indications.