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Schizophrenia

daydo2006
07.10.2018

Content:

  • Schizophrenia
  • The Surprising New Connection Between Schizophrenia And Our Guts
  • Symptoms of schizophrenia
  • Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. People with schizophrenia may seem like they have. Learn more about the symptoms and types of schizophrenia at Mental Health America. Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that can result in hallucinations, delusions, and extremely disordered thinking and behavior.

    Schizophrenia

    On the other hand, presynaptic dopamine metabolism and release is elevated despite no difference in dopamine transporter.

    Interest has also focused on the neurotransmitter glutamate and the reduced function of the NMDA glutamate receptor in schizophrenia, largely because of the abnormally low levels of glutamate receptors found in the postmortem brains of those diagnosed with schizophrenia, [] and the discovery that glutamate-blocking drugs such as phencyclidine and ketamine can mimic the symptoms and cognitive problems associated with the condition.

    In vivo imaging of GABAergic signaling appears to be moderately reduced, this may be dependent upon treatment and disease stage. These criteria use the self-reported experiences of the person and reported abnormalities in behavior, followed by a clinical assessment by a mental health professional. Symptoms associated with schizophrenia occur along a continuum in the population and must reach a certain severity and level of impairment, before a diagnosis is made.

    To be diagnosed with schizophrenia, two diagnostic criteria have to be met over much of the time of a period of at least one month, with a significant impact on social or occupational functioning for at least six months. The person had to be suffering from delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized speech. A second symptom could be negative symptoms, or severely disorganized or catatonic behaviour. The ICD criteria are typically used in European countries; the DSM criteria are used in the United States and some other countries, and are prevailing in research studies.

    The ICD criteria put more emphasis on Schneiderian first-rank symptoms. In practice, agreement between the two systems is high. If signs of disturbance are present for more than a month but less than six months, the diagnosis of schizophreniform disorder is applied.

    Psychotic symptoms lasting less than a month may be diagnosed as brief psychotic disorder , and various conditions may be classed as psychotic disorder not otherwise specified ; schizoaffective disorder is diagnosed if symptoms of mood disorder are substantially present alongside psychotic symptoms. If the psychotic symptoms are the direct physiological result of a general medical condition or a substance, then the diagnosis is one of a psychosis secondary to that condition.

    The ICD defines additional subtypes: Psychotic symptoms may be present in several other mental disorders, including bipolar disorder , [] borderline personality disorder , [] drug intoxication, and drug-induced psychosis.

    Delusions "non-bizarre" are also present in delusional disorder , and social withdrawal in social anxiety disorder , avoidant personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder. Schizotypal personality disorder has symptoms that are similar but less severe than those of schizophrenia. It can resemble schizophrenia and be misdiagnosed as such.

    A more general medical and neurological examination may be needed to rule out medical illnesses which may rarely produce psychotic schizophrenia-like symptoms, such as metabolic disturbance , systemic infection , syphilis , AIDS dementia complex , epilepsy , limbic encephalitis , and brain lesions.

    Stroke , multiple sclerosis , hyperthyroidism , hypothyroidism , and dementias such as Alzheimer's disease , Huntington's disease , frontotemporal dementia , and the Lewy body dementias may also be associated with schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms.

    Investigations are not generally repeated for relapse unless there is a specific medical indication or possible adverse effects from antipsychotic medication. In children hallucinations must be separated from typical childhood fantasies. Prevention of schizophrenia is difficult as there are no reliable markers for the later development of the disorder. The primary treatment of schizophrenia is antipsychotic medications, often in combination with psychological and social supports.

    Long-term hospitalization is uncommon since deinstitutionalization beginning in the s, although it still occurs. Some evidence indicates that regular exercise has a positive effect on the physical and mental health of those with schizophrenia.

    The first-line psychiatric treatment for schizophrenia is antipsychotic medication, [] which can reduce the positive symptoms of psychosis in about 7 to 14 days. Antipsychotics fail to significantly improve the negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. The choice of which antipsychotic to use is based on benefits, risks, and costs. Most people on antipsychotics have side effects. People on typical antipsychotics tend to have a higher rate of extrapyramidal side effects ; some atypicals are associated with considerable weight gain, diabetes and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    This is most pronounced with olanzapine; risperidone and quetiapine are also associated with weight gain. For people who are unwilling or unable to take medication regularly, long-acting depot preparations of antipsychotics may be used to achieve control. A number of psychosocial interventions may be useful in the treatment of schizophrenia including: Schizophrenia has great human and economic costs. Schizophrenia is a major cause of disability , with active psychosis ranked as the third-most-disabling condition after quadriplegia and dementia and ahead of paraplegia and blindness.

    There is a higher than average suicide rate associated with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia and smoking have shown a strong association in studies worldwide.

    Schizophrenia affects around 0. Despite the prior belief that schizophrenia occurs at similar rates worldwide, its frequency varies across the world, [5] [] within countries, [] and at the local and neighborhood level.

    In , the World Health Organization found the percentage of people affected and the number of new cases that develop each year is roughly similar around the world, with age-standardized prevalence per , ranging from in Africa to in Japan and Oceania for men, and from in Africa to in Southeastern Europe for women. In the early 20th century, the psychiatrist Kurt Schneider listed the forms of psychotic symptoms that he thought distinguished schizophrenia from other psychotic disorders.

    These are called first-rank symptoms or Schneider's first-rank symptoms. They include delusions of being controlled by an external force, the belief that thoughts are being inserted into or withdrawn from one's conscious mind, the belief that one's thoughts are being broadcast to other people, and hearing hallucinatory voices that comment on one's thoughts or actions or that have a conversation with other hallucinated voices.

    A review of the diagnostic studies conducted between and found that they allow neither a reconfirmation nor a rejection of Schneider's claims, and suggested that first-rank symptoms should be de-emphasized in future revisions of diagnostic systems. The history of schizophrenia is complex and does not lend itself easily to a linear narrative.

    A detailed case report in concerning James Tilly Matthews , and accounts by Philippe Pinel published in , are often regarded as the earliest cases of the illness in the medical and psychiatric literature. In Emil Kraepelin borrowed the term from Schule and Pick and in introduced a broad new distinction in the classification of mental disorders between dementia praecox and mood disorder termed manic depression and including both unipolar and bipolar depression.

    This account ignores the fact that there is little to connect Morel's descriptive use of the term and the independent development of the dementia praecox disease concept at the end of the nineteenth century. American and British interpretations of Bleuler led to the claim that he described its main symptoms as four A ' s: Treatment was revolutionized in the mids with the development and introduction of chlorpromazine.

    In the early s, the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia were the subject of a number of controversies which eventually led to the operational criteria used today.

    David Rosenhan 's study, published in the journal Science under the title " On being sane in insane places ", concluded that the diagnosis of schizophrenia in the US was often subjective and unreliable. The term schizophrenia is commonly misunderstood to mean that affected persons have a "split personality".

    Although some people diagnosed with schizophrenia may hear voices and may experience the voices as distinct personalities, schizophrenia does not involve a person changing among distinct, multiple personalities; the confusion arises in part due to the literal interpretation of Bleuler's term "schizophrenia" Bleuler originally associated schizophrenia with dissociation, and included split personality in his category of schizophrenia.

    People with severe mental illness, including schizophrenia, are at a significantly greater risk of being victims of both violent and non-violent crime. Media coverage relating to violent acts by people with schizophrenia reinforces public perception of an association between schizophrenia and violence. Research has found a tentative benefit in using minocycline to treat schizophrenia.

    Various agents have been explored for possible benefits in this area. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Schizophrenia disambiguation. Mental disorder characterized by abnormal behavior and misinterpretation of reality. Basic symptoms of schizophrenia. Dual diagnosis and Comparison of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Social construction of schizophrenia , List of people with schizophrenia , and Religion and schizophrenia.

    Animal models of schizophrenia. Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 3 February National Institute of Mental Health. Archived from the original on 25 November Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th ed. Current Opinion in Psychiatry. Archived from the original on 29 June Retrieved 26 June Archived from the original PDF on 23 June Retrieved 23 December Susceptibility to Psychiatric Illness".

    Frontiers in Psychiatry Review. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses". The Psychiatric Clinics of North America. Archived from the original on 13 May Archived from the original on 20 March Archived from the original on 25 July Sims' Symptoms in the Mind E-Book: Textbook of Descriptive Psychopathology. Journal of Molecular Psychiatry. Symptoms in the mind: Contemporary Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing 2nd ed. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: The Importance of Identification and Treatment".

    Archived from the original on 6 October Neurobiology of Mental Illness 4th ed. Archived from the original on 30 November Archived from the original on 7 February Australian Occupational Therapy Journal. The British Journal of Psychiatry. Archived from the original on 25 May Current Directions in Psychological Science.

    Archived from the original on 28 December Schizophrenia Research and Treatment Review. The Neurochemistry of Schizophrenia". In Siegal GJ, et al. Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects 7th ed. Archived from the original on 2 February Adult psychopathology and diagnosis 6th ed. Current Opinion in Neurobiology. Archives d'Anatomie et de Cytologie Pathologiques.

    A comprehensive review of epidemiological, clinical, neuropsychological and biological findings". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. Archived from the original on 9 November Retrieved 27 September Archived PDF from the original on 4 March Archives of General Psychiatry. Asian Journal of Psychiatry Review. Cannabis acts as a component cause of psychosis, that is, it increases the risk of psychosis in people with certain genetic or environmental vulnerabilities, though by itself, it is neither a sufficient nor a necessary cause of psychosis.

    The British Journal of Clinical Psychology. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. Behaviour Research and Therapy. The Boundaries of Consciousness. A meta-analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging studies". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. Psychological Medicine Systematic Review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews Review. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Linking Postmortem and In Vivo Studies". Nordic Journal of Psychiatry.

    Retrieved 17 February Archived PDF from the original on 18 June Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 8 January Archived from the original on 8 February News Archives by Category Old. House Republicans who last year made good on promises to overhaul the mental health system could roll back coverage for millions of people with mental illness and addiction problems by overhauling Medicaid as part of an Obamacare repeal package, a preliminary version of which was released this week.

    This is an important and large new study that again confirms the increased risk of psychosis for young people using cannabis, but also many other street drugs, including alcohol. In the article it says that one of the key reasons is that it […].

    Voices — Documentary about Schizophrenia, Now Planning Screenings at a City Near You Check out the list of cities that are hosting screenings on the new documentary about schizophrenia. It sounds like a great way to introduce children to the topic of schizophrenia in a positive way. We look forward to getting a review copy of the […]. The focus of this unprecedented donation is on spurring on scientific research on the […]. He is one of the founding members of of an important new […].

    Increasingly clinical researchers are telling us that they believe that many, and perhaps most, cases of schizophrenia can be prevented through higher quality prenatal care health of the mother prior to pregnancy, and during pregnancy as through specific targeted nutritional, stress including avoidance of getting the Flu during pregnancy — which is an important stressor […].

    Schizophrenia, has long been associated with stigma. The motivation to remove this stigma is what inspired the Schizophrenia Oral History Project. Using this approach to examine schizophrenia has changed Dr. A new study done by Columbia University of long-acting injectable antipsychotics for people with schizophrenia found that the newer, second-generation, medication paliperidone palmitate Brand name Invega Sustenna by Janssen Pharmaceuticals was no more effective than the older, less expensive haloperidol decanoate.

    This was so, even though the doses of the older medication given in the […]. A new research study has revealed that genetic variants associated with risk for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders are also associated with performance on measures of IQ, memory and social cognition. From the trailer it looks to be a very good film.

    The Surprising New Connection Between Schizophrenia And Our Guts

    Schizophrenia Support Forums and in-depth Treatment and Recovery information for families and individuals dealing with schizophrenia. Learn about Schizophrenia, including symptoms, risk factors, treatment and more . Schizophrenia is a mental health illness that affects about 1 percent of all adults globally. It can cause symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, problems.

    Symptoms of schizophrenia



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