A project delivery method is a system used by an agency or owner for organizing and financing design, construction, operations, and maintenance services for a. Depending on project needs and your desire for involvement in decisions and preferences for managing risk, learn which delivery system is right for you. Training delivery methods consist of the techniques and materials used by trainers to structure learning experiences. Different training delivery methods are .
In doing so, the Owner concurrently assumes more of the design risk. As a result, the bridging documents must be carefully prepared to balance these design elements and the risk the Owner desires. Conceptual Bridging is not Design-Build in the typical sense but makes use of a design-build form of agreement between the owner and the contractor. In practice, this varies a lot but the essential information required before a contract between the owner and design-builder can be signed includes a Space Program, a document that defines the quality of the built elements often referred to as whole-building performance requirements , and contractual requirements.
CM Risk holds the risk of construction performance and guarantees completion of the project for a negotiated price. Any unused contingency at the end of the project reverts to the Owner. The design consultant team is selected separately and reports directly to the Owner. San Francisco Public Safety Building. Lump Sum contracting, also called Fixed Price, is when an owner contracts with an entity to perform a fixed scope of work in exchange for an agreed lump sum payment for the specified services.
This method is one of the most commonly used. Guaranteed Maximum Price contracting is an arrangement in which an owner contracts with an entity to perform a fixed scope of work in exchange for a price that is guaranteed to not exceed a stated maximum price. The GMP will typically include a base cost along with several allowances and contingencies that, depending on their ultimate use, may result in a final cost below the stated GMP. Mission College East Campus Complex. Most of the team players come together in the preconstruction phase of the project under contract with the design-builder maintaining the single point of contact for the Client.
The common level of understanding is pushed further to the front of the project planning. In this project delivery method, the owner hires a single entity to perform both design and construction. While there are a wide variety of team selection methods from negotiated to competitive, in typical competitive selections, several design-build teams are selected to study the project requirements and develop price proposals with firm commitments on project size, function, performance, quality and delivery schedule.
Based upon previously published selection criteria, the Owner evaluates the proposals and selects one D-B entity that offers the best value. By retaining independent design professionals—among whom are some of the most highly regarded architects and engineers in the United States—the Pankow system of Design-Build blends the discipline of strong, collaborative design team management with a respect for the aesthetic, functional and systems contributions of our design partners.
Our Design-Build program offers Clients with a single source of responsibility for both design and construction, yet, in order to allow our Clients the level of input they desire during design, we are flexible as to when in the process that contractual design responsibility occurs.
Innovation and the application of the Design-Build process dramatically impacts speed, cost and quality on the Client's behalf. With Design-Build, Pankow is responsible for, and therefore motivated to, produce results that we must stand behind after construction is complete. This is a key consideration in selecting a project delivery method.
Whether building a new greenfield facility, modernizing, or expanding an existing facility, there are a variety of approaches available for design and construction. Essentially, a project delivery method is a configuration of roles, relationships, responsibilities, and sequences on a project.
The Engineer-Procure-Construct EPC project delivery method has emerged as a preferred choice for many industries and is starting to gain favor in the manufacturing industry. With an EPC contract, the owner has a single point of contact for the project. Under this model, the EPC firm handles the design, procurement of all equipment and construction materials, and construction services for turnkey delivery of the facility, usually at a lump-sum price. Typical EPC firms have all the required resources in-house to ensure efficient and effective communication throughout the project.
The EPC process starts with a preconstruction effort that involves some preliminary planning and engineering to define the scope, schedule, and costs of the project. Validation is most often managed directly by the client or through a separate validation firm to ensure this critical activity is successfully delivered. EPC firms knowledgeable in manufacturing facilities should be able to work with the owners to develop a validation master plan at the onset of the project and incorporate the plan into the project estimate, schedule, and quality control.
The EPC firm has complete responsibility for the project from start to finish. Project scope and estimates are developed by the EPC firm. The project schedule and project budget are known before the project enters detail design or construction phases. All design and construction scope and budget risks are passed to the contractor.
EPC project delivery offers the tightest integration of activities during the construction process through a structured and disciplined approach. In addition, communication among the design, procurement, and construction teams begins immediately. The EPC model helps align team members for optimal project performance.
This often results in a collaborative, value-based construction process. EPC delivery is typically used for process or equipment driven projects.
The EPC model reduces project risks for the owner, delivers predictable results, and maximizes the effectiveness of capital planning. Owners with sufficient in-house staff contract with different entities for each phase of design, construction, and validation, as well as take on the responsibility of orchestrating the various team members.
Each step in the execution process follows the other sequentially with minimal overlap. Under the DBB approach to project delivery, the owner functions as the overall project manager and hires external engineers, consultants, and contractors to deliver the project. The owner typically starts by retaining an architect to program and develop a scope of work, then develop the project plans and specifications.
The selection process for the architect can be competitive on a lump sum basis or the more traditional approach where the architect's costs are a defined percentage of the total installed cost TIC. The owner may have already selected manufacturing process equipment at this point. The architect generally prepares a preliminary cost estimate to assist the owner in budget development.
These estimates are typically historically or empirically based. Once the detailed design effort has been completed, prequalified general contractors GCs are invited to submit lump sum project construction bids. The DBB method often results in wide bid spreads, requiring the owner to match project scope to bid scope.
Should the bids exceed the owner's preliminary budget, additional time will be required to resubmit the project for funding. If the bids are within budget, a GC is selected based on a variety of factors defined by the owner and design team. Once the GC is selected, the GC begins to hire subcontractors for the various trades, and the facility is constructed in accordance with the contract and construction documents.
The owner and architect oversee the project and work with the design team to ensure the facility is being constructed in accordance with the construction documents.
Validation is then performed by a third-party consultant under the owner's direction. The DBB approach is typically used when the project is not well-defined and there is adequate time for the design and construction phases. DBB projects are typically competitively bid and priced as a lump sum. The competitive nature of the bidding process usually results in a competitive cost for the owner, but the quality of the subcontractors is left to the GC.
Under this method, all construction and performance risks are assumed by the contractor. Role rotation demonstrates the variety of ways the issues in the role play may be handled. Trainees who are observers are more active than in the single role play since they have already participated or know they soon will be participating. A drawback is that the progress of the role play is frequently interrupted, creating additional artificiality.
Again, trainees may be inhibited from publicly critiquing the behavior of their fellow trainees. Behavior modeling is used primarily for skill building and almost always in combination with some other technique.
Interpersonal skills, sales techniques, interviewee and interviewer behavior, and safety procedures are among the many types of skills that have been successfully learned using this method. While live models can be used, it is more typical to video tape the desired behavior for use in training.
The steps in behavior modeling can be summarized as follows:. Behavior modeling differs from role plays and games by providing the trainee with an example of what the desired behavior looks like prior to attempting the behavior. While this method is primarily behavioral, steps 2 and 3 reflect the cognitively oriented learning features of the technique. Feedback to the trainee is especially powerful when video is used to record both the model's and the trainee's performance.
Through split screen devices, the performance of the model and the trainee can be shown side by side. This allows the trainee to clearly see where improvements are needed. Simulations are not good at developing declarative knowledge.
Some initial level of declarative and procedural knowledge is necessary before a simulation can be used effectively. Although some knowledge development can occur in simulations, usually other methods are required for this type of learning. Simulations provide a context in which this knowledge is applied. Improving the trainees' ability to apply knowledge i. Simulations do a good job of developing skills because they:. Each of the different formats has particular types of skills for which they are more appropriate:.
The most common method of training, on-the-job training OJT uses more experienced and skilled employees to train less skilled and experienced employees. OJT takes many forms and can be supplemented with classroom training.
Included within OJT are the job-instruction technique, apprenticeships, coaching, and mentoring. Formal OJT programs are typically conducted by employees who can effectively use one-on-one instructional techniques and who have superior technical knowledge and skills. Since conducting one-on-one training is not a skill most people develop on their own, train-the-trainer training is required for OJT trainers.
In addition to training the trainers, formal OJT programs should carefully develop a sequence of learning events for trainees. The formalized instructional process that is most commonly used is called the job-instruction technique. It focuses on skill development, although there are usually some factual and procedural-knowledge objectives as well.
There are four steps in the JIT process: Preparation and follow up are the two areas that are most often ignored in OJT programs. Preparation should include a written breakdown of the job. Ignoring this step will prevent the trainer from seeing the job through the eyes of the trainee. When the trainer is very skilled there are many things he does on the job without thinking about them. This can result in their being overlooked in training without a systematic analysis and documentation of the job tasks prior to beginning training.
Once the tasks have been documented, the trainer must prepare an instructional plan. Here, the trainer must determine what the trainee currently knows and does not know. This is the needs analysis phase of Figure 1. Interviewing the trainee, checking personnel records and previous training completed are among the many ways of determining what KSAs the trainee currently has.
This is compared to the KSAs the trainee needs to perform the tasks. The instructional plan is then completed focusing on the trainee's KSA deficiencies. The orientation should help trainees understand their role and the role of the trainer.
The importance of listening effectively and feeling comfortable asking questions should be emphasized. The trainee should become familiar with the steps in the JIT process so he or she knows what to expect and when it will occur. In this stage of JIT there are four activities: When telling and showing, the trainer provides an overview of the job while showing the trainee the different aspects of it.
The trainer is not actually doing the job, but pointing out important items such as where levers are located, where materials are stored, and so on. The trainer then demonstrates how to do the job, explaining why it is done that particular way and emphasizing key learning points and important safety instructions.
The components of the job should be covered one at a time, and in the order they would normally occur while performing the job. The trainee should be able to explain to the trainer how to do the job prior to actually trying to do the job. This provides a safe transition from watching and listening to doing. When the trainee first tries out the job the trainer should consider any errors to be a function of the training, not the trainee's learning ability.
When errors are made they should be used to allow the trainee to learn what not to do and why. The trainer can facilitate this by questioning the trainee about his actions and guiding him or her in identifying the correct procedures.
During follow up the trainer should check the trainees' work often enough to prevent incorrect or bad work habits from developing. The trainer should also reassure the trainee that it is important to ask for help during these initial solo efforts.
As trainees demonstrate proficiency in the job, progress checks can taper off until eventually they are eliminated. Apprenticeship training dates back to the Middle Ages, when skilled craftsmen passed on their knowledge to others as a way of preserving the guilds. Today, apprenticeship programs are partnerships between labor unions, employers, schools, and the government. They are most often found in the skilled trades and professional unions such as boiler engineers, electrical workers, pipe fitters, and carpenters.
The typical apprenticeship program requires two years of on-the-job experience and about hours of classroom instruction, though requirements vary. An apprentice must be able to demonstrate mastery of all required skills and knowledge before being allowed to graduate to journeyman status. This is documented through testing and certification processes. Journeymen provide the on-the-job training, while adult education centers and community colleges typically provide the classroom training.
Formal apprenticeship programs are regulated by governmental agencies that also set standards and provide services. Coaching is a process of providing one-on-one guidance and instruction to improve the work performance of the person being coached in a specific area. It differs from other OJT methods in that the trainee already has been working at the job for some time.
Usually, coaching is directed at employees with performance deficiencies, but it can also serve as a motivational tool for those performing adequately. Typically the supervisor acts as the coach. Like the OJT trainer, the coach must be skilled both in how to perform the task s and how to train others to do them. The amount of time supervisors devote to coaching activities steadily increased during the s and will likely represent more than 50 percent of supervisors' time by the new millennium.
The coaching process, viewed from the coach's perspective, generally follows the outline below. Note the similarities between JIT and this process. This technique focuses on providing the junior employee with political guidance and a clear understanding of how the organization goes about its business.
Mentoring is more concerned with improving the employee's fit within the organization than improving technical aspects of performance, thus differentiating it from coaching. Generally, though not always, mentors are only provided for management-level employees. Revised by Marcia J. The Web Learning Fieldbook: Systems, Strategies, and Practices.
Four Steps to Success. Employee Training and Development. Improving On the Job Training. Brown, and Marcia J.
Project Delivery Methods
DELIVERY METHODS. We consider inclusion and collaboration essential elements of project success. Pankow engages regularly with developers, owners, . Delivery Methods. Choosing the right delivery method for your project is an art and a science. It's not just about the contract. It's about the right talent, resources . Project delivery has four standard delivery models. Listed is a summary of how these different models factor into the services offered by a contractor.