Several trials investigated the effects of psychological interventions to of evidence on the efficacy of psychological interventions for acute pain. Studies have also addressed the psychological consequences of exposure to war .. Evidence suggests that a chronically activated, dysregulated acute stress . Heart rate reactions to acute psychological stress were negatively associated with symptoms of depression five years later: Evidence from a large community study. Second, a meta-analysis of 11 relevant studies found.
Acute Studies from Evidence Psychological
Where change scores are indicated pre-test values are subtracted from post-test values such that a positive change score indicates an increase on that variable from the start to the end of the testing procedure.
A medium effect size exists for change in Alertness with Rosemary. Immediate and Delayed word recall scores represent number of correctly recalled words.
Prospective memory scores indicate the amount of time secs the text message received deviated from the requested time. Scores on the multi-tasking framework are calculated by the software with speed and accuracy gaining points and errors or failures to respond losing points. Mean present stress scale change from baseline for both conditions over the testing period.
Error bars represent standard errors and are presented in one direction only for each point to aid clarity of the figure. Means standard deviations for the subjective variables. The six scales of the NASA-tlx were scored only at the end of testing and so represent absolute values. There is a greater decrease in calmness in the control condition than in the Rosemary water condition, with a small effect size.
Positive and Negative affect possess equal and opposite-signed small effects in favour of Rosemary Water. With regard to the NASA-tlx scale, participants in the Rosemary water condition found the testing session more physically demanding with a small to medium effect size, but less mentally demanding with a small effect. Participants in the control condition felt happier with their performance than those in the Rosemary water condition with a small effect size. Figure 1 presents the change from baseline values for the present stress scale.
The participants in the Rosemary water condition consistently reported lower stress throughout the testing procedure, with a return to near baseline levels for both groups at the point when the second subjective measures are completed.
Figures two to four display the mean change from baseline for the three physiological variables recorded in the study: As can be seen in Figure 2 , both conditions start the cognitive testing period with a noticeable increase in heart rate compared to baseline of five beats per minute. As testing progresses heart rate in the Rosemary water condition declines whereas that in the control condition is maintained at a higher level until the end of the testing when the two conditions are reconciled around three beats per minute above baseline.
Medium sized effects are observed across the period that represents the completion of the multitasking framework. The multi-tasking framework leads to a large increase in systolic blood pressure in the control condition Figure 3. This is considerably blunted in the Rosemary water condition. Both conditions show a decline in systolic blood pressure at the end of the framework task although continues to be higher in the control condition with medium to large effects present over the testing period.
Mean heart rate change from baseline bpm for both conditions over the testing period. Diastolic blood pressure is largely stable across the testing period in the Rosemary water condition, compared to a noticeable increase in the control condition, particularly during completion of the multi-tasking framework.
Effect sizes are medium to large across the duration of testing Figure 4. Mean systolic blood pressure change from baseline mm Hg for both conditions over the testing period. Mean diastolic blood pressure change from baseline mm Hg for both conditions over the testing period. The data collected in this pilot study reveal some interesting indications regarding the potential for carbonated No.
Due to the pilot nature of the study, tests of significance have been eschewed in favour of measures of effect size as defined by Cohen  , and the discussion will be based around these. Considering the cognitive variables, it was predicted that aspects of memory previously identified as sensitive to Rosemary might benefit from the acute consumption of a Rosemary water product containing active ingredients.
This was found to be the case with small effects present. Indeed the size of the effects observed are similar to those previously reported for both aroma   and oral administration   of Rosemary. In support of the alternate hypothesis that absorption of active compounds is the key that unlocks pharmacological mediated effects, is evidence from animal studies that demonstrate that 1,8-cineole is readily absorbed by the gut and impacts on behaviour  .
In vitro studies have previously demonstrated that 1,8-cineole has significant anti-cholinesterase properties  , and given the primary role of the cholinergic system in memory it is possible that such a mechanism underpins the cognitive effects observed here and elsewhere.
Although no bioavailability data exist for No. There is much less impact observed for scores gained on the multi-tasking framework, although this might not be too surprising. As such, it is not designed to be a means of directly assessing cognition, and scores on the four modules are not equally weighted.
It is designed to induce cognitive load and stress through competing demands for the attention of the participant. As a consequence, these parameters shall not be focused on here above the observation that condition did not appear to impact on performance. What is of greater importance is the impact of the multi-tasking framework on the physiological and subjective measures. Previous studies have consistently shown that the multi-tasking framework employed here can significantly increase heart rate and blood pressure from baseline levels   .
The current study found responses of the same kind, but notably much greater in the control condition. Indeed, Rosemary water appeared to exert what might be seen as a protective effect on these physiological variables with medium effect sizes across the board.
This is of particular interest because no previous studies have identified Rosemary as possessing such properties when consumed orally, and in resting individuals the administration of Rosemary aroma has been associated with an increase in these variables . However, intravenous injections of 1,8-cineole the major active component in Rosemary essential oil produces decreases in heart rate and blood pressure as a consequence of vascular relaxation in free-to-roam rats .
The possibilities suggested by the data reported here are intriguing, and worthy of further investigation. It may be that Rosemary possesses the properties to alleviate the physiological responses to acute stress through such a mechanism. Consideration of the physiological markers of stress reactivity leads neatly on to the subjective psychological assessments.
These are also interesting as they mirror findings reported elsewhere   for Rosemary aroma. However, their observation here suggests that these effects are not a consequence of olfactory stimulation either. This is perhaps somewhat unexpected as previous studies have suggested that the mechanisms for influencing mood and cognition might be distinct; potentially one olfactory and one pharmacological; as correlations between the two variables have not been consistently present  .
It may be the case that the physiological effects on heart rate and blood pressure at a time of stress mediate the subjective mood effects. Such subjective effects have been reported in chronic patient treatment studies of high blood pressure  , although persistent low blood pressure also has negative effects on mood . Further work is warranted in order to clarify the relationship between physiological and subjective variables in healthy adults at times of stress and when subjected to interventions that might reduce perceived stress in the manner reported here.
Finally, the NASA-tlx produced results that in some respect run counter to those previously reported here. A small to medium effect indicating that Rosemary water produced feelings of greater physical effort or exhaustion as a consequence of completing the study was identified. This might also relate to lower performance satisfaction as the tasks appeared harder? As a pilot, this study has provided some interesting data that certainly suggest there is value in greater investigation of the potential properties of No.
Possible benefits for memory, and in particular the cardiovascular responses to acute stress are exciting avenues to explore. Indeed, current work in our lab includes a large scale replication of this study, and investigations of the impact of chronic consumption of No. To conclude, Rosemary herb offers a number of interesting possible health promoting applications, from antioxidant and anti-microbial to hepatoprotective and antitumorigenic activity .
The current study adds to the growing evidence in support of the potential for enhancing memory-based aspects of cognitive functioning, improving mood especially in terms of subjective alertness and reduced stress, and perhaps even delivering cardiovascular benefits as well.
Future research in this area would benefit from inclusion of bioavailability data regarding the absorption of identified active components in No. International Journal of Neuroscience, , Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4, International Journal of Neuroscience, 96, Scientia Pharmaceutica, 81, Journal of Psychopharmacology, Sage Publications Ltd.
Journal of Medicinal Food, 15, A Randomized Clinical Trial. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 30, Planta Medica, 81, British Journal of Medical Psychology, 47, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, Stress and Health, 21, Psychological Bulletin, , British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 4, Planta Medica, 53, Journal of Chemical Ecology, 31, Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology, 2, Stress and Health, 30, Neurobiology of Stress, 7, Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 80, Scientia Pharmaceutica, 77, Blood Pressure, 6, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 41, The paper is not in the journal.
Twenty healthy adults were randomly allocated to consume either ml of No. They then completed a series of subjective measures and cognitive tasks including a fifteen-minute session on a stress inducing multi-tasking framework, followed by a second completion of the subjective measures.
Heart rate and blood pressure were monitored throughout the procedure. These revealed a number of small enhancement effects on cognition, consistent with those found previously for the inhalation of the aroma of Rosemary essential oil, and oral administration of dried herb. Of particular interest here are the reduced subjective evaluations of stress, and the blunted physiological reactivity noted for heart rate and blood pressure, which represent novel findings in this area.
To compare the efficacy of psychological interventions as an adjunct to standard care versus standard care alone or standard care plus attention control in adults undergoing open heart surgery for pain, pain medication, psychological distress, mobility, and time to extubation. We used the 'related articles' and 'cited by' options of eligible studies to identify additional relevant studies.
We checked lists of references of relevant articles and previous reviews. We also contacted the authors of primary studies to identify any unpublished material. In addition, we wrote to all leading heart centres in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria to check whether they were aware of any ongoing trials. Randomised controlled trials comparing psychological interventions as an adjunct to standard care versus standard care alone or standard care plus attention in adults undergoing open heart surgery.
Two review authors SZ and SK independently assessed trials for eligibility, estimated the risk of bias and extracted all data. We calculated effect sizes for each comparison Hedges' g and meta-analysed data using a random-effects model. We added six studies to this update. Overall, we included 23 studies participants. For the majority of outcomes two-thirds , we could not perform a meta-analysis since outcomes were not measured, or data were provided by one trial only.
Psychological interventions did not reduce pain intensity in the short-term interval g 0. No study reported data on median time to re-medication or on number of participants re-medicated.
Early psychological interventions to treat acute traumatic stress symptoms
Personality and physiological reactions to acute psychological stress although the evidence relating personality to biological stress reactivity is inconclusive. Psychological; Aged; Anxiety Disorders; Blood Pressure; Cohort Studies; Female . This article reviews the role of psychological factors in the development of Based on a review of the scientific evidence, a set of 10 principles that have relevant goals Recent studies of patients with chronic pain have. The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a.