Treatment for vomiting (regardless of age or cause) includes: than 24 hours, an oral rehydrating solution should be used to prevent and treat dehydration. Find out the most common causes of nausea and vomiting and get tips to Adults caring for sick children need to be aware of these visible. The experts at WebMD offer tips for treating nausea and vomiting. If your nausea is chronic, you'll need to find a variety of vegetables and.
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These include cancer treatments, physical changes in the body and emotional reasons. Some of the reasons why someone with cancer may experience nausea and vomiting are listed below. In other cases, there are emotional reasons for nausea and vomiting. Examples of these include the following:. There are many different types of drugs that help treat nausea and vomiting. They can be given as:. The type of anti-sickness treatment you have will depend on the cause of your sickness.
The most effective way of managing nausea and vomiting is by treating the cause. Sometimes, there is more than one cause of nausea and vomiting and more than one type of treatment may be needed. A combination of drugs may be the most effective treatment. There are many types of drugs that can be used to control nausea and vomiting.
Some of these work on the brain by preventing the stimulation of the vomiting centre. Others work on the gut by speeding up the rate at which the stomach empties. This helps to move food through the intestines more quickly. If the first anti-sickness drug you try does not work, your doctor may recommend trying a different one.
Anti-sickness drugs can be given in different ways. If you are unable to swallow a tablet, there are other ways you can have the drug:. Some tablets can be swallowed with plenty of water, while others can be placed under your tongue sublingually to dissolve.
Some anti-sickness drugs can be diluted in fluid and given as an injection straight into the vein or by a drip into the vein intravenous infusion. The drugs can be given through either a small tube cannula in your hand or arm, or a larger tube into a vein in the chest central line or the bend above your elbow PICC line.
You may have the drugs as an injection into the fatty tissue under the skin, using a small needle and syringe. They can also be given over several hours through a pump attached to a small needle that is placed just under the skin. These are put into the back passage rectum , where they dissolve and are absorbed into the bloodstream through the lining of the gut. Some anti-sickness drugs can be absorbed through the skin transdermally from a small patch that is stuck on to the skin like a plaster.
The patch is usually changed every couple of days. Some cancer treatments, including certain chemotherapy drugs , are known to cause nausea and vomiting. If you are taking these drugs, you will be given anti-sickness drugs before the treatment starts.
It may also be given for a few days after the treatment has finished. If you feel sick or are being sick because of the cancer itself, it may take a while to relieve this symptom. You will be given anti-sickness drugs and, if possible, the cause of the sickness will be treated. It's often easier to control and prevent nausea if you take anti-sickness drugs regularly, rather than treating the nausea after it has started.
If you have any new nausea or vomiting, or your nausea and vomiting becomes worse or lasts for more than a few days, let your doctor or nurse know. You may be given a combination of different drugs to control nausea and vomiting. Some of the drugs used are listed below:. These drugs are used to treat sickness caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. They work best when given with steroids.
Serotonin affects the receptors in the gut and brain called 5HT3 receptors, causing you to feel sick. These are often given with other anti-sickness drugs to treat nausea caused by chemotherapy. They can also be used to help with sickness when someone has advanced cancer. Dexamethasone is the most commonly used steroid. These drugs work by acting on the vomiting centre in the brain to help control sickness. Chlorporamazine is occasionally used in advanced cancer, when other anti-sickness drugs haven't worked.
These drugs can be taken as tablets or given through a small pump called a syringe driver. This is used when someone is having difficulty swallowing. NK1 inhibitors are drugs that work by blocking a chemical that affects neurokinin receptors in the body that cause nausea.
They are usually given along with steroids and a 5HT3 inhibitor to control sickness caused by chemotherapy, particularly with a drug called cisplatin. Examples of NK1 inhibitors include:.
Sometimes, anti-sickness drugs can cause side effects. Different drugs will have different side effects and each person may react differently. We have listed some of the more common side effects here. We also tell you which drugs may cause these side effects. If you notice any side effects that are not listed below, tell your doctor, nurse or pharmacist. The drugs that can cause constipation are:. Constipation can usually be relieved by drinking plenty of fluids, eating a high-fibre diet, and doing some gentle exercise.
Sometimes, you may need to take laxatives to stimulate your bowels. Your doctor can prescribe these for you. Let your doctor know if you get headaches while having any of these drugs as part of your anti-sickness therapy. When injected, ondansetron, tropisetron, and dexamethasone can cause flushing or a sensation of warmth. Although this is rare, tell your doctor if you have these side effects. The drugs that can cause drowsiness are:.
Indigestion can be caused by dexamethasone. It may help to take these tablets with or after food. Tell your doctor if indigestion is a problem for you, as they can prescribe medicines to help. Dexamethasone may make it difficult for you to get to sleep.
This problem can be reduced by taking your last dose of the day early in the afternoon, rather than in the evening before you go to bed. Metoclopramide may cause muscle twitching. This can affect different parts of the body, including the face, neck and shoulders.
This is more commonly seen in children and young adults. If you notice this side effect, stop taking the tablets and tell your doctor, as other medicines may be better for you.
Eating problems caused by sickness If feeling sick is putting you off your food, the following tips may help:. Using relaxation tapes or taking part in activities that you find relaxing may help you cope with nausea. Acupuncture involves placing thin, sterile needles into the skin to affect energy points.
It is part of traditional Chinese medicine. They apply pressure to specific points on the body, usually the wrist, to control nausea.
Some people find acubands helpful in reducing nausea. They are available from chemists and health food shops. Back to Other side effects You might find it helpful to have our side effects booklet to hand. It explains some possible side effects and how they can be managed. It can help to know more about how treatments work, and why they might cause different side effects. You may have side effects while you're having treatment, and some time after.
Advice and guidance about all the practical issues you might need to consider, including work, travel and finances. What's happening near you? Find out about support groups, where to get information and how to get involved with Macmillan where you are. Community member, Kath, was diagnosed in with squamous cell cervical cancer at age Read her inspirational story of how she went on to have a son after treatment.
This group is for cancer survivors and people who have finished treatment. It is a space to discuss things like the physical and emotional after effects of cancer, returning to work, or trying to move on with your life.
Thanks We rely on a number of sources to gather evidence for our information. We thank all those people who have provided expert review for the information on this page. Our information is also reviewed by people affected by cancer to ensure it is as relevant and accessible as possible. Thank you to all those people who reviewed what you're reading and have helped our information to develop. You could help us too when you join our Cancer Voices Network — find out more at: Bits of fecal matter in the emesis indicate obstruction in the distal intestine or the colon.
Emesis that is of a bilious nature greenish in color localizes the obstruction to a point past the stomach. Emesis of undigested food points to an obstruction prior to the gastric outlet, such as achalasia or Zenker's diverticulum. If patient experiences reduced abdominal pain after vomiting, then obstruction is a likely etiology. However, vomiting does not relieve the pain brought on by pancreatitis or cholecystitis.
It is important to watch out for signs of dehydration, such as orthostatic hypotension and loss of skin turgor. Auscultation of the abdomen can produce several clues to the cause of nausea and vomiting.
A high-pitched tinkling sound indicates possible bowel obstruction , while a splashing " succussion " sound is more indicative of gastric outlet obstruction. Eliciting pain on the abdominal exam when pressing on the patient may indicate an inflammatory process.
Signs such as papilledema, visual field losses, or focal neurological deficits are red flag signs for elevated intracranial pressure.
When a history and physical exam are not enough to determine the cause of nausea and vomiting, certain diagnostic tests may prove useful. A chemistry panel would be useful for electrolyte and metabolic abnormalities. More advanced imaging and procedures may be necessary, such as a CT scan, upper endoscopy, colonoscopy, barium enema, or MRI. Abnormal GI motility can be assessed using specific tests like gastric scintigraphy, wireless motility capsules, and small-intestinal manometry.
Research on nausea and vomiting has relied on using animal models to mimic the anatomy and neuropharmacologic features of the human body. There are four general pathways that are activated by specific triggers in the human body that go on to create the sensation of nausea and vomiting.
Signals from any of these pathways then travel to the brainstem, activating several structures including the nucleus of the solitary tract , the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and central pattern generator. The body's motor muscle responses involve halting the muscles of the gastrointestinal tract, and in fact causing reversed propulsion of gastric contents towards the mouth while increasing abdominal muscle contraction.
Autonomic effects involve increased salivation and the sensation of feeling faint that often occurs with nausea and vomiting. If dehydration is present due to loss of fluids from severe vomiting, rehydration with oral electrolyte solutions is preferred. Many pharmacologic medications are available for the treatment of nausea. There is no medication that is clearly superior to other medications for all cases of nausea. For people with motion sickness and vertigo, antihistamines and anticholinergics such as meclizine and scopolamine are particularly effective.
In certain people, cannabinoids may be effective in reducing chemotherapy associated nausea and vomiting. In hospital settings topical anti-nausea gels are not indicated because of lack of research backing their efficacy. Ginger has also been shown to be potentially effective in treating several types of nausea.
Tentative evidence supports acupuncture at point PC6. The outlook depends on the cause. Most people recover within few hours or a day. While short-term nausea and vomiting are generally harmless, they may sometimes indicate a more serious condition. When associated with prolonged vomiting, it may lead to dehydration or dangerous electrolyte imbalances or both.
Repeated intentional vomiting, characteristic of bulimia , can cause stomach acid to wear away at the enamel in teeth. Nausea and or vomiting is the main complaint in 1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Nausea disambiguation. Aust Fam Physician Review. How stress affects your body and behavior". Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Anxiety.
Archived from the original on Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Review. Therap Adv Gastroenterol Review. Nausea, Vomiting, and Indigestion. Retrieved 24 January Check date values in: Principles and Practice of Hospital Medicine. Physical Aspects of Care. European Journal of Pharmacology. Retrieved 10 November Nausea, Emesis and Appetite Stimulation".
Managing Nausea and Vomiting at Home
Get medical care if the person has any of the following Nausea or vomiting is due to surgery, anticancer. If you're feeling nauseous or queasy, finding a quick fix can feel necessary to stop yourself Vitamin B-6 on its own has had mixed results for treating nausea. Nausea is pronounced stomach discomfort and the sensation of wanting to vomit. Nausea can the stomach. The condition has many causes and can often be prevented. Get the facts on fractures and learn about diagnosis and treatment.